A site dedicated to the proper care and general information of mute swans
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Responsible Ownership of Captive Mute Swans

ENCOURAGING OWNERS OF CAPTIVE MUTE SWANS
IN PENNSYLVANIA TO BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THEM.

Pennsylvania Mute Swans

 Click Images to Enlarge

My Goal is to Encourage Owners and Breeders of Captive Mute
Swans in Pennsylvania to be Responsible with their Mute Swans,
so our State can avoid the Pennsylvania Game Commission
imposing strict Regulations or a Prohibition of Mute Swans in
Pennsylvania.

Captive Mute Swans

Keeping Captive Mute Swans on Private Property will
benefit all who enjoy having or visiting these Graceful Swans.
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In Pennsylvania Privately owned Mute Swans
are considered Exotic Domestic Poultry – they are Captive Pets. There are no current Restrictions for Owning, Buying,
Selling or Breeding Mute Swans in Pennsylvania.

Pennsylvania Mute Swans

If each Captive Mute Swan Owner and Breeder will practice
Responsible Care to prevent their Adult Mute Swans or Mute Cygnets from leaving the safety of their Private Property, then a Feral Population will not become troublesome for PAGC WaterFowl
Management. Mute Swan Owners will help prevent the Feral problems experienced by neighboring States.

Pennsylvania Mute Swans
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To prevent Mute Swans from leaving Private Property it is important Mute Swans are rendered Incapable of Flight.

Pennsylvania Mute Swans

The Surgical Pinioning of the Distal Section of ONE Wing is a
Permanent Way to keep Swans from Flying. The easiest and least
Traumatic time for the Swans to have this Procedure done is during
the first 10 days after a Cygnet Hatches.
Pinioned Swan Cygnets

This should be done by an Avian Veterinarian
or someone who is knowledgeable of this Procedure.

Clipping Mute Swan Cygnet

Clipping Primary Flight Feathers of ONE Wing will Temporarily
Ground an Unpinioned Swan until their next Moult.

Mute Swan Moulting
Clipping newly emerged Flight Feathers is risky while they are “Blood Feathers.”  It is safer to wait until the Feathers Blood Vessels Atrophies.  It is easy to put off Clipping just a little too long. Your Swan may simply fly off never to return.

Mute Swans Flying
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Captive Mute Swans
Finding New Homes for Mute Cygnets and/or Rehoming an Adult
Mute Swan is the Responsibility of the Current Owner.

Pennsylvania Mute Swans

No Mature Mute Swan or Mute Cygnet should be release to Public Lands or Public Waterways to live in the Wild as Feral Swans.
In Pennsylvania Feral Mute Swans will be Remove from Public Lands and Waterway by Hunters.

Discarded Mute Swan

       This Gentle Female Mute Swans
was Shot September 2008.

PAGC 2014-15 Please Be Aware Your Swans and Cygnets are NOT Safe 
If they Leave Your Property. 

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As more and more States are restricting Ownership, requiring Permits or simply Prohibiting Mute Swans in their States, finding new homes for Mute Cygnets is becoming a challenge..

Pennsylvania Mute Swans
Pinioned Mute Swans are much easier to rehome.
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Done properly Addling or Culling/Spoiling Swan Eggs – treating the
Eggs to prevent them from hatching, will reduce the need to find New Homes for the first year Cygnets – 8 to 10 months old.
It is important to learn to do this properly.

Spoil Swan Eggs

Allow the Female Mute Swan to “Sit” on her (Spoiled) Eggs for a Total of 42 Days, then remove them.  The 42 Days started when the Pen starts to “Sit” Full Time.

Mute Swan Spoil Eggs

If you Take the Eggs away too soon, the Female will Recycle and lay another Clutch of Eggs.

Nesting Mute Swan

Mute Swan Nesting
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Consider Same Gender Pairs.

Same Sex Male Mute Swans
Instead of having a Breeding Pair, consider same Gender Swans.
Two Females are good Company for each other.

Sister Mute Swans

Spoil Swan Eggs
Female Pairings will need to “Sit”on their Nests of unfertile Eggs for 42 Days and then be taken off the Eggs.

Nesting Sister Swans

Female Swans without a Male to Protect them are MORE
Vulnerable during the Time they “Sit” on their Nests.

Same Sex Male Swans

Two Nest Mate Males will often live peacefully together.
They will build and sit on a Nest, NO Eggs to Spoil…or Protect.

Male Swan Nest

Male Swan Nesting
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Not Grounding Cygnets can have Tragic Results.
Young Swan Cygnets Flying about may cause Accidents by landing
on Highways Scaring Motorists.

Swan Cygnet Hit by Car

The Swan’s Wide Wing Span can cause Electric Cable Injuries. (???)
Swans can also become severely injured Flying into Fences.

Fence by Pond

Some PA Licensed Wildlife Rehabilitation Facility will take injured
or Wayward Mute Swans. They are not Native Birds covered by the
Rehabber’s license. The PA Licensed Rehabber may not release Mute Swans to the Wild..  A few will try to Find Private Property Homes.

Feral Mute Swan

Mute Swans related Calls to the PAGC will result
in the 
Euthanasia of Feral Mute Swans.
Feral Mute Swan

PAGC will not Rescue Wayward, ill or injured Mute Swans.
Nor will they arrange for them to be placed in a New Home.
Injured Mute SwansIt is sad to know these wayward Swans will be destroyed through no
fault of their own.
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An Alternative to Owning Mute Swans
Consider Native Trumpeter Swans…

Trumpeter Swan Family

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Information about Owning Trumpeter Swans.

Livingston Ripley Waterfowl Conservancy
http://www.lrwc.net/conservation.html
The successful recovery of wild Trumpeter Swan populations to
mid-west North America is a conservation success story attributed to coordinated captive breeding and reintroduction programs overseen by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and managed through State and Federal Wildlife Agencies.

Trumpeter Swan

Cooperative Conservation America
www.cooperativeconservationamerica.org/viewproject.asp?pid=149

Nesting Trumpeter SwansWyoming Wetlands Society
Trumpeter Swan Captive Breeding Program
http://wyomingwetlandssociety.org/swans_captiveBreeding.php

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Rescue Mute Swan

If you know of a Wayward Mute Swan that needs Rescued,
Please Contact me.. We will try to help.. if Possible.
Thank You – Linda M.Sweger   StarBug@comcast.net
Camp Hill, PA 17011 (717) 732-6216
OR Try Chloe’s Creek Domestic Waterfowl Rescue
Lancaster County, PA
Home (717) 653-1958 Cell Phone (717) 951-7762
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Below is Reference Material I have been using for Information.
Doing an Internet Search may have more Current Information.

The Mute Swan Management Plans Across the United States
are changing every year State by State.
There will be more Current Information on
www.SwanLovers.net

PAGE:  Where to Find Mute Swan Information
for Your State.

Pennsylvania River

PAGE: Current Status of Mute Swans in Pennsylvania
is not Constructed as of January 2017
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Pennsylvania River

PAGC – State Wildlife Management Agency 2010
Information from the Waterfowl Management Specialist.

In Pennsylvania, although there was/is no formal Mute Swan
Eradication Program, Mute Swans that turned up on Public Lands
were often destroyed, and State Law followed the MBTA in
classifying them as unprotected.

Mute Swan Females

In effect, they could be taken without a permit at any time, for any reason, by just about anyone.

Mute Swan Females

A Photography Posted Images of these Female Swans on the Internet.  Two Days later Hunters with a Boat and Dogs arrived at this River Access and Shot them.

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The Current PAGC policy for control of Feral Mute Swans is:

www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/…/mute_swan_plan_pdf
Pennsylvania allows Mute Swans to be shot by Hunters.

Feral Mute Swans
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Pennsylvania Firearm Owners Association
http://forum.pafoa.org/hunting-23/56877-mute-swan-hunting-risk.html

Feral Mute Swans
Mute Swans are an invasive species in the state. The PAGC
recommends that the Feral Swans be removed at any opportunity.
There is no closed season and they may be taken at any time on
Public Lands or Water Ways.
Feral Mute Swans

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This is taken from the 2009 PAGC Mute Swan Update
2009 PAGC State Mute Swan Update.html

In 2003 the Atlantic Flyway Council adopted a Mute Swan
Management Plan with the goals of reducing Mute Swan populations
in the flyway to levels that will minimize negative impacts on
wetland habitats and native waterfowl, and preventing range
expansion into unoccupied areas.

Feral Mute Swans

Under the PAGC Flyway Management Plan,
Pennsylvania has a two fold Mute Swan population goal:
zero free-ranging Mute Swans,
and a maximum of 250 in captivity.

Mute Swans Private Pond

By documenting an apparent contraction of the range of Mute Swans
in the state of Pennsylvania, reduced numbers and productivity of
Feral Mute Swans, and relative stability of domestic Mute Swan
numbers below the maximum level, the 2008 survey suggests that
progress is being made toward achieving management plan goals.

Duck Hunters Refuge     Pennsylvania Flyway Form http://www.refugeforums.com/refuge/threads/can-you-hunt-mute-swans-in-penn.928323/

Mute Swan Huners

Atlantic Flyway states and provinces conduct a Mid-Summer Mute Swan Survey (MSMSS) approximately every 3 years to monitor population trends of this exotic, invasive waterfowl species. In Pennsylvania, the MSMSS consists of a compilation of mute swan observations by Wildlife Conservation Officers (WCOs) within their districts during the survey period, which usually has target dates in early August. WCOs are requested to record any mute swans encountered during their routine travels, and if possible to specifically check locations where mute swans have been observed or reported in the past.

Feral Mute Swans

Much of this progress can be attributed to the diligent control efforts
of the PAGC and partner agencies following the removal of legal
obstacles by the Migratory Bird Treaty Reform Act of 2004.
Work does, however, remain to be done to adequately address the negative impacts of this invasive species.

Feral Mute Swans

Population monitoring, control efforts, guidelines and regulations for keeping Captive Mute Swans, and public education will all need to be continued or improved to further reduce the number of feral Mute Swans and keep in check the still-sizable population of domestic Mute Swans, which remains capable of causing nuisance and ecological problems while serving as a potential source for future increases in the free-ranging population.

Mute Swan Family

     2011-2012 Mid-Summer Mute Swan Survey
for Pennsylvania

http://www.pgc.pa.gov/HuntTrap/Hunting/Documents/51004-11z.pdf

The Pennsylvania portion of the 2011 (AF) Atlantic Flyway MSMSS was conducted by (WCO) Wildlife Conservation Officers statewide from mid-July through late August, with the majority of surveys completed during the target dates of 1-14 August.

Lone Mute Swan

During the 2011 survey, 167 Mute Swans were observed in Pennsylvania. This was 41% below the total from the 2008 survey and 52% below the peak (2002) total for this survey. The numbers of Broods (10) and Cygnets (17) observed both decreased from 2008, and both totals were the lowest since 1993. The number of Mute Swans classified as Feral declined to 45 (15% fewer than the 2008 survey and the lowest on record for this survey in Pennsylvania).

Nesting Feral Mute Swans

Feral Mute Swans are also accounting for a declining percentage of observed Broods (10% in 2011, compared to 13% in 2008, 26% in 2005, and 38% in 2002).

Mute Swan Brood

The 2011 survey also documented a continued range contraction in the state, with the 30 WCO districts where Mute Swans were observed being the lowest total since 1999. Mute Swan numbers continue to be highest in southeastern Pennsylvania (94). For the entire AF, 9,202 Mute Swans (13% below the 2008 total) were observed (Table 1).

Hunters from other States were coming to Pennsylvania to Shot Feral Mute Swans.  Information allowing this was/is listed in their Hunting Guides.

MUTE Swans Hunter SHOT

As in Pennsylvania, flyway-level Mute Swan numbers trended upward from survey inception in 1986 to a peak in the 2002 MSMSS, but have decreased since then. Declining trends are due mainly to active control efforts throughout the flyway (aided by the removal of legal obstacles by the Migratory Bird Treaty Reform Act of 2004); these efforts will continue as managers seek to reduce Mute Swan populations to levels identified in the AF Mute Swan Management Plan: <3,000 flyway-wide, zero feral/maximum 250 captive in Pennsylvania.
Feral Mute Swans

At the flyway level, the 2005 MSMSS indicated that Atlantic
Flyway Mute Swan numbers had declined (albeit slightly) from
2002, the first decrease observed since initiation of the survey.
Feral Mute Swans
A summary of the 2008 Mute Swan survey results for the entire flyway, which will show whether the flyway as a whole continues to mirror Pennsylvania’s progress toward management plan goals.

Mute Swan Family

Pennsylvania Feral Mute Swan

A Few Feral Mute Swans may Live for a while in areas
where Hunting is not Allowed. 
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PAGC – State Wildlife Management Agency 2010
http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt?open=514&objID=623106&mode=2

Historically, because Mute Swans are an exotic and non-migratory
species, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service did not consider them
protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), an
international treaty which gives the federal government primary
responsibility for managing migratory birds, including native
ducks, geese and swans.

Pennsylvania Waterfowl
Consequently, management of Mute Swans was the responsibility of individual states. In Pennsylvania, although there was no formal Mute Swan eradication program, Mute Swans that turned up on public lands were often destroyed, and state law followed the MBTA in classifying them as unprotected.

Feral Mute Swans

In effect, they could be taken without a permit at any time, for any reason, by just about anyone. It’s likely that this approach was responsible for keeping our feral Mute Swan population from growing as rapidly as in states where Mute Swans were protected under state law and/or not consistently removed from public lands.

Pennsylvania Mute Swans

In December 2001, however, in response to a lawsuit, a federal court ruled that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service could not exclude Mute Swans from MBTA protection. This placed Mute Swans in the same protected category as native waterfowl, and in effect meant that control measures, including those used in Pennsylvania, had to be put on hold or stopped.

Feral Mute Swan

Combined with the rapidly multiplying feral Mute Swan population
in the Chesapeake Bay just to our south, and the increasing numbers
of domesticated Mute Swans already in Pennsylvania that could
serve as a source of new feral Mute Swans, these constraints on
control activities were a major cause for concern.

Mute Swan Family

Following the court ruling, the PAGC worked with the Fish and
Wildlife Service and other Atlantic Flyway States to develop the
Atlantic Flyway Mute Swan Management Plan.

This plan established Mute Swan population goals for the flyway, along with strategies to begin reducing populations to those levels within the parameters of the MBTA.

Pennsylvania River

As part of this plan, the PAGC established a Pennsylvania population goal of zero feral, free-ranging Swans and a maximum population of 250 legally-permitted Swans held in captivity.

Captive Mute Swan Cygnets

One of the most important control measures suggested in the
management plan was the issuance of federal depredation permits to
allow state personnel to resume removing Mute Swans from public
lands and from private lands with landowner permission.

Feral Mute Swans

However, attempts by the USFWS to issue Mute Swan depredation permits were obstructed by further lawsuits. The lack of depredation permits severely hampered the ability of wildlife managers in Pennsylvania and elsewhere to maintain Mute Swan populations at or below the levels specified in the management plan.

Feral Mute Swans

Fortunately, legislation clarifying that the MBTA does not, and was never intended to, apply to non-native species such as the Mute Swan was passed by the U.S. Congress and signed by President George Bush in November, 2004.

The Last Mute Swans

In effect, this action has returned management authority for Mute Swans to the states, as was the case prior to 2001. This change should make it much easier to keep Pennsylvania’s Mute Swan population under control; of particular benefit is the ability to resume Euthanasia of Feral Mute Swans where appropriate.

Feral Mute Swans

Other management tools may also prove useful in reducing the threat posed by Mute Swans.

Egg addling (treating eggs to prevent them from hatching) is
labor-intensive and much less effective at reducing populations than
removal of adult Mute Swans, but it has been used with some success on Mute Swan nests in Maryland, and may be appropriate for some situations in Pennsylvania.

Spoiling Mute Swan Eggs

Another useful option might be the adoption of regulations to strictly regulate the possession of Captive Mute Swans to ensure they do not cause major conflicts or serve as a source of new feral populations.

The Last Mute Swans
Regardless of the exact control methods ultimately adopted, it is very important to change public perception that Mute Swans are a wonderful addition to our outdoors.
Feral Female Mute Swans
Just as house sparrows and starlings rob eastern bluebirds of critical
cavity-nesting locations, Mute Swans are displacing native waterfowl
and beginning to over use aquatic food sources.

Grazing Mute Swans
Without our intervention now, while Pennsylvania’s Mute Swan population is still at a relatively manageable level, the problems Mute Swans cause for waterfowl and other wetland species will worsen, and addressing these problems will only become more difficult and expensive.
River HealthBy becoming more informed about the threats posed by Mute Swans
and other introduced invasive species, communicating this
information to others, and supporting control efforts, all
Pennsylvanians who care about native wetland wildlife and its
habitats can play a role in safeguarding these species from biological
invasions.

River Health

Resident Canadian Geese
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www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/…/mute_swan_plan_pdf
While Pennsylvania and Virginia allowed Mute Swans to be shot by
hunters, Delaware aggressively removed the birds from state lands.
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Captive Swans Need to be Cared for as Domestic Pets.
They NEED Proper Adequate Food
and Reasonable Living Conditions.

Mute Swan Family

This Information is a Work in Progress…..
As I learn more I will add to this information..
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Compiled by (C) L.M.Sweger Jan 2017
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