A site dedicated to the proper care and general information of mute swans
Header

Whether you are Looking for a Swan
to Replace One 
you have Lost,
Selling Swans or Cygnets to ReHome them,
IT IS IMPORTANT TO KNOW THE SEX
OF ALL These SWANS.

Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Determining the Sex of Swans by DNA

Click Images to Enlarge 

Before you Pinion a Tiny Cygnet:
TRY to Determine the Cygnet’s Sex first, if possible.
Vent Check if You know what to look for.

Tiny Mute Swan Cygnets

If you know a Person who knows how to Vent Check..
ASK for Help.

*************************
Vent Sexing Cygnets is not 100% Accurate.
If you find Male Parts/the tiny Penis..
Then you have a Male.. Pinion the Left Wing.

If you can NOT find the Penis..
that does not mean you have a Female.

It is difficult to find the tiny Penis in Cygnets.. it might be missed.
During the First 10 Days after Hatching, it is suggested that the Penis is larger due to the Cygnets elevated Hormones.

Female Mute Swans

All Cygnets that might be Female (Maybe Male) should be DNA Checked…

At least Pinion the Right Wing.
BETTER to Pinion a Wing when they are Tiny then NOT.

Pinion Cygnets

DO NOT PINION UNTIL YOU LEARN HOW TO DO IT PROPERLY.
ASK Your Veterinarian for Instructions. 

ASK SOMEONE who KNOWs How to PINION Safely. 

TO Pinion an Older Cygnet or Adult Swan is Time Consuming
and Hard on them and their Owners.  It is only safely done by an Avian Veterinarian who preforms this Procedure.

Surgical Pinion Swan

Swan Cygnets LESS then 10-12 Days Old have ONE Tiny Capillary, ONE Tiny Nerve and Soft Cartilage in the Distal Wing Tip.  Pinioning at this time is the Safest for the Cygnet.

Young Swan Cygnets

Be Sure to USE some method of keeping track of which Cygnet is which.

THE TINY WING TIP REMOVED WHEN YOU PINION
Cygnets can be Sent for DNA Testing.
PLEASE READ Below*****************

&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

From Gazette
Discussion of Sexing Birds by Vent Checking

http://www.gamebird.com/ducksgeeseswans3.html

Direct from WEBSITE.
The best thing is to get another Breeder who is an Expert at Vent Sexing to help you and supervise you until you’ve picked up the knack of it.

Most Ducks are very easy to Sex while the Geese and Swans resist you more, that is tighten their Vent Muscles so that it is most difficult to invert their Cloacal Region so their Inner Sex Parts come into plain view. Perhaps the best time to Sex any Water-Fowl is when they are a week or two old, and some say best results are achieved at just 3-4 days old.

Experience indicates that Vent Sexing is best done in the Spring on Adult Birds, when the Sex Organs are beginning to swell.
At this time of year the gentle manual manipulation of a Male’s Vent will cause sensitive twitching and reflex movement.
This does not occur when handling Female Water Fowl and is a good indicator of Sex in my judgement, but as mentioned before, an Expert can apply the right amount of pressure and easily
cause the Vent to invert itself and expose the Inner Sex Parts so that there is no doubt as to Sex.

Check the drawings that illustrate Vent Sexing in various publications so you know what to look for, and the Penis on a Male will stick out especially when the right manipulation of the anal region is applied, so there is really no guess work involved when done right.

Also, before doing Vent Sexing for the first time, it is my recommendation that you first consult with and receive instruction from an Avian Veterinarian.
End of Quote from Gazette Article
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

I wish I had found someone who could do the above Vent Sexing Method. But, Whoooo is me… TOO Many Mistakes occurred..
Even with years of Experience.

I have read that Vent Checking can result in injury to the Cloaca Sphincter.  It would be easy to scratch the Sphincter trying to manipulate it.

Mute Swan Cygnet

SO…. I prefer to spare the Cygnet/Swan and do the DNA-Sex Testing.
***************************************
Vent Sexing Swans/Cygnets is NOT Fool-Proof..
A Percentage will be WRONG..
If you Find Male Parts – Penis – Great..
But, if you do not find the Tiny Penis,
–                                you can not be sure you have a Female.

*******************************************************
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
*******************************************************

Ducks have a real Penis…. Swans not so….

Duckling

Ballistic Penises and Corkscrew Vaginas
– The Sexual Battles of Ducks
http://scienceblogs.com/notrocketscience/2009/12/22/ballistic-penises-and-corkscrew-vaginas-the-sexual-battles/

Swan are NOT similar to Ducks or Geese.
Male Swans do not have a Penetrating Sex Organ.
The Size of the Structure which transfers Serum is affected by the Current Hormone Level in the Male Cygnet/Swan.

Welsummer Rooster

How Chickens Lost Their Penises
(And Ducks Kept Theirs)

http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2013/06/06/how-chickens-lost-their-penises-ducks-kept-theirs/
*****************************************
Over the Years I have talked with Some Folks who Suggest comparing Swan or Cygnet Size, Vocal Pitch, Behavior.
– All Subjective.

 

The Knob of both Male and Female Mutes changes through the Year as the Swan’s Hormones Increase/Decease annually..

Female Mute Swan Knob

Same Female Mute Swan Before Nesting & After Nesting Season.

Female Mute Swan Knob
The Knob on a Mute Swan will Change as their Weight Changes.
Healthy Swans tend to have larger Knobs

Mute Swan Knob
– Underweight Swans have Smaller Knobs.

Underweight Mute Swan

I do KNOW if a Swan lays an Egg… that is a Female..
A Healthy Female Swan needs to be at least 3 Years Old before she will lay an Egg.

Female Mute Nesting

I know of any number of Situations where a Pond had two Male or two Females..
NOT a Female / Male Breeding Pair.
The Swan Owners were Frustrated there were NO Cygnets..

Young Female Swans

*************************************************
If you are interested…
I will share some OOPs Anecdotes at the End of this Page.
Stories of Mis-Sexed Swans..

Same Sex Male Swans

The Above Image – Turned out to be TWO Males.
*************************************************

The Advances in DNA Testing = Reliable Sexing Results.
http://www.avianbiotech.com/Research_P2.htm
*************************************************
THE MOST RELIABLE WAY
TO DETERMINE A SWAN’s SEX
is by DNA-Sex Testing.

There are Several Types of Samples that may be Submitted for Testing.

Feathers For DNA

Each needs to be Handled Properly to Protect the Sample’s Integrity.

AvianBiotech.com Avian Sexing Center – Learn More.
http://www.avianbiotech.com/sexingcenter.htm

Mute Swan Cygnet

Very Young Cygnet do not have Feathers and can not be Feather DNA-Sex Tested.
Down is not Acceptable for Testing.

True Swan Feathers

True Feathers will start emerging around 8 Weeks.
Too late for you to Tie or Cut Pinion…

Try to Pinion FEMALEs on RIGHT WING Tip – the Distal Wing
**** ONE WING ONLY ****
Pinion MALEs on LEFT WING Tip – the Distal Wing
**** ONE WING ONLY ****

Pinioned Mute Swan

THERE IS NO NEED to Pinion Both Wings. 

*************************************
If you are VERY LUCKY.. all your Cygnets will Survive..
That is Generally not the Case.

Mute Swan Family

Predators will claim many Tiny Fuzzy Cygnets.

Great Blue Heron
The most Common – Red-tailed Hawks, Snapping Turtles, Owls, Great Blue Herons.

Polish Mute Swans

From Experience, there is a Wisdom in Collecting a Sample if you have a chance. Identify the Cygnet/Swan and ID the Sample well.
Store as the Avian Diagnostic Lab. instructs.. and wait until the Cygnets are about 4 Months Old to send the Samples for Testing.
NO Point having Results for Cygnets that have not survived.

Polish Mute Swans

I wish this was more Straight Forward..
but, Determining the Sex of Cygnets and Swans is a Challenge.

*************************************
WEEKS Before the Cygnets are Scheduled to Hatch.

Once the (Pen) Female starts to “Sit” full time, mark your Calendar and count 35 – *37 Days.  On Day 35 you might be able to hear the Tiny Cygnets in the Shell “Pipping.”  If all goes as planned they will start to Hatch on Day *37.  YEAH !!!

Nesting Female Mute Swan
Collect Your Supplies so you are READY.
Check with Family or Friend – who will be willing to Help.
EXTRA Hands are Important.

Speak with Some One in the Avian Testing Lab,
If this is your First Time to Collect DNA Samples.
Become Informed of ALL Your Options.

Order or Ask them to send you a few Collection Kits.

SWAN DNA-Test Kits
OR Make you own Sample Kits.
Clean ZipLoc Bags.. For Feather Samples.

SWAN DNA-Test Kits

Clean White Paper Towel Squares Prepared for a Drop of Fresh Blood.
Draw a 1/2 Circle to fill with a Drop of Blood.

When you Pinion a Cygnet, there may be a Drop of Fresh Blood.

AVIAN Biotech Main Office in the U.S.A.
http://www.avianbiotech.com/SexingCenter.htm

Avian Biotech International
Toll Free: 1-800-514-9672
Fax: 1-850-386-1146
Email: contact@avianbiotech.com
1336 Timberlane Road
Tallahassee, FL 32312-1766

Outside the U.S.: 1-850-386-1145

*************************************

**** MAKE COPY OF SUBMISSION FORM ****
A Printable Form is Available on Avian BioTech’s WebSite.
http://www.avianbiotech.com/avian.pdf

***************************************
With Cygnets Older then 8 Weeks..
I suggest you pay the extra $5.00 to have a DNA-Sex Test
done with Feathers – fee $24.50 (with Postage – $25.00)

Mute Swan Cygnets

AVIAN BioTech has instructions on their WebSite for proper
collection of Samples. Feathers must be Plucked..
Not picked up. No Moulted Feathers.

Moulting Swan

AVIANBIOTECH.com DNA Sexing from Feathers
http://www.avianbiotech.com/questionsaboutfeathersexing.htm

http://www.avianbiotech.com/Feathers.htm

***************************************
DNA-TESTING from a DROP of BLOOD

A carefully collected Drop of Blood can be sent for DNA – Testing.
Read instruction on Avian BioTech Website…

This would mean a tiny spot will have Open Skin exposed.
Avoid allowing Cygnets to go back in the Pond for 1 -2 hours..
BE SURE ANY Bleeding is COMPLETELY STOPPED.
ESPECIALLY, if there are Snapping Turtles in their Water.

ANY Bleeding is to be cared for and completely STOPPED.
I have used Clean Corn Starch and Clean White Flour as an Aid to Stop MINOR Bleeding.
WONDER DUST has been recommended.. I plan to try this.
There is additional Information for Wonder Dust at the Bottom of this Page.
Kwik Stop Styptic Powder should be used CAREFULLY as a Last Resort to Stop Bleeding.

Pinioned Mute Cygnets

If you can Squeeze a Nice Drop of Blood from the Removed Tip
of the Wing when you Pinion, Soak the Blood Drop onto a VERY CLEAN Paper Towel Square.
Do your Best NOT to Touch the Area to be Soaked with Blood Drop.
Place in a Labeled ZipLoc Bag.

SWAN DNA-Test Kits

Label carefully, Refrigerate in a DRY Container.
This can be sent in for their DNA-Sex Test..

A Blood Sample fee is $20.00.  (in 2016)
Both Feather and Blood Dot Results take 5-10 days.

I do not like to see holes poked in a Swan’s Feet or Legs.
This Greatly Increasing the risk of Painful *Bumble Foot Infections.

Bumble Foot Sore

Beautiful as they are, Swans Walk, Stand and Swim in POOP.

Swan Standing in Poop
DO NOT PUNCTURE their FEET..
The Sores it Causes are TERRIBLE..

Swan Bumble Foot Sore

*****************************************

The Tiny WING TIP of a Cygnet Pinioned
when less then 10-12 Days, may have a Drop of Blood to Soak onto a Blood Collection Card – Absorbent Paper Towel.

10 Day Old Mute Swan Cygnet

I checked with Avian BioTech..   (October 2014)
The Tiny Wing Tip that is Snipped Off when a Cygnet is Pinioned Can be submitted for the DNA-Sex Testing..
The Wing Tip has an Area of Skin which is Fresh Tissue acceptable for Testing.

Swan Cygnet DNA Sex Testing

Fill out the Submission Form *Immediately and *Send ASAP
******************
OR If you want to wait to send the Wing Tips…

Since several Cygnets may not Survive the first several Months,
it is Practical to Send for the DNA-Sex Testing when the Cygnets are around Three to Four Months Old.

IF you have a GOOD way to Identify each Tiny Cygnet when you Pinion them, you can put each Wing Tip in a Carefully Labeled PAPER ENVELOPE.

Swan Cygnet DNA Sex Testing
Information: DATE Specimen Collected – Cygnet ID – Your Name

Then Put ALL Envelopes together in a PAPER BAG.. LABEL.
Put these in the Freezer. They are Good for One Year.
I Checked this with Avian BioTech  (June 2016)
Check with Avian BioTech for Instructions
to Send Frozen Samples.  

At Three to Four Months of Age, you will be able to Send the Ones you Need.

Cygnet DNA Sex Results

CHECK with Avian BioTech for Handling Instructions.
Put EACH Wing TIP in a Separate *PAPER ENVELOPE
– NOT PLASTIC

BE SURE YOU KNOW WHICH CYGNET the Wing Tip is From.
ID the Cygnets SOME WAY…

ID Each Separate *PAPER Envelopes.
Place Only One Wing Tip in each *PAPER Envelope with ID INFO.

Mail ALL Labeled Paper Envelopes Inside a Larger Paper Envelope with Submission Form.

Swan Cygnet DNA Sex Testing

******************************
Once the Diagnostic Lab. receives your Sample/Samples you will Receive a Message by EMail..

DNA Sex Test Results

Then in 3-5 Days the EMail Results will be Ready..
So, allow 8-10 Days for Results..

A Print-Out and the DNA Sexing Report Certificate will come in the Mail in 2-3 Weeks.

SWAN DNA-Certificate

Example of the Certificate that Avian BioTech Sends.
(I added the Photo)

This DNA-Test with its Certificate increases the Saleability of Swans/Cygnets. This information is very desirable to Folks looking for Swans/Cygnets.

***************************************
There are other Animal Genetic Labs that do this Testing.
This is the one I have used for years..

* AVIAN BioTech – Avian Services Center *
http://www.avianbiotech.com/

AVIAN BioTech has instructions on their WebSite for proper
collection of Samples.
****************************************
FOR True Feather Samples to Send for DNA-Sex Testing.
Animal Genetics Page for Avian DNA Sexing (Feather)
http://www.horsetesting.com/Avian/DNA_Sexing/DNA-Sexing-Feather.asp

Feathers must be Plucked..
Do Not picked up Feather laying on the Ground.
No Moulted Feathers.
The Test is Run on the Pink Skin Flesh that is inside the Quill.
Feathers MUST be Plucked-Pulled from the Live Bird.

SWAN Feathers DNA-Sex Testing
************
Cygnets must be old enough to have real Feathers.
Downy is not acceptable. Feathers will start coming in
when they are around Two – Three Months Old – 60-90 Days.

Pin Feathers are New Growth Feathers.. They are Rich in DNA.
5-6 Pin Feathers are an Acceptable Sample.

Swan Cygnet 90 Days Old
****************************************
There are Photo Images to help you see what needs to be done…
Pull 5-6 Feathers from the Chest area… Slight Tug will be needed..

Fresh Plucked Festhers
Does not hurt the Swan… They will fuss just being held..

****************************************
Feathers, Fresh Plucked can be stored at Room Temperature for One Year in a LABELED Dry Paper Envelope.  (Checked April 2016)

Place Feather Sample in a ZipLoc Bag just before Mailing.
Label each Swan and Sample so you know which Swan
the Results will correspond to.

Feather DNA Sample for Swans

You will receive a DNA-Sex Test Result Certificate for each Swan.
This Certificate should stay with the Swan through its Life.
This is much like their “Birth Certificate” – “Hatch Certificate.”
*************************************************
Since the SAFE Time to Pinion Cygnets is their First 10 Days..
It is not always possible to be sure what Sex the Cygnets are
when deciding which Wing to Pinion..

Pinioned Swan Cygnet
BETTER to Pinion A Wing by 10-12 Days then Not Pinion.

*************************
There are instruction to Clip a tiny piece of
–      Toe Claw for DNA-Sex Testing.
I am not familiar with this.. I do not know if this will bleed..

Swan Missing Toe Claw
We had one 10 Month Old Female Cygnet
–                                                    that was missing a Toe Claw.
I wonder if this was how she was Tested.. ??
*************************
There are instruction for sending
–    EggShells for DNA-Sex Testing…

Mute Swan Egg Shells
I am not familiar with this..
The “Dam” will generally ingest the Shell if a Cygnet Hatches.
This might be practical when Eggs are Hatched in an Incubator.
Making Sure which Cygnet belongs to which Shell would be Tricky.

**************************************
**************************************
IF YOU USE ANY TYPE OF ID BAND On Cygnet Legs.
Take Care to adjust ANY Leg Band so it will NOT
Slide UP the Leg over the Ankle Joint..
The Joint Next to the Feathers…

Cable Tie ID Swan Cygnet

Adjust to minimize Catching on things.

BE SURE TO CHANGE ANY TYPE OF LEG BAND
As the Cygnet/Swan Grows. THEY GROW QUICKLY.

We have used Colored Cable Ties on Cygnets we are Hand Raising.  NOT Cygnets on the Pond with their Parents.

Colored Bands to ID Cygnets
***************************************

I have NO Suggestions on how to Label or ID Cygnets that are on Ponds with their Parents.
ANY Thing placed on their Legs will need to be changed as they GROW..

I have made several Calls to Companies that make Bands and ID Tags for Poultry and Farm Animals.  This Clip MIGHT work.

June 2016 – After evaluating these as Possible Permanent IDs for Swans/Cygnets, we might try to put a few on when Cygnets are FOUR Months Old.

(June 2016)  More Information will Follow:

NB&T Metal Ear Tag 681
National Band & Tag Company
International Identification INC
https://nationalband.com/wingbands/

721 York St, PO Box 72430
Newport, KY 41072-0430
Phone: 1(859) 261-2035
Fax: 800-261-TAGS (8247)
E-Mail: tags@nationalband.com

Spoke with a Sales Person Natasha April 2016
She felt Metal Livestock “Tags” would work well put
on Tiny Cygnets weighing One Pound that will
Grow into Swans 25-30 Pounds.
These would be clipped into the Wing Skin.
TAKE CARE NOT TO Clip anything but SKIN.
https://nationalband.com/metal-ear-tags/

Metal Livestock Identification Ear Tag
Cattle Ear Tags Self-Piercing – Self Locking
Tamper-Resistant Light Weight Aluminum
Will Last for 20+ Years. Style 681
Packs of 100 Number or Letters as you Choose.
One Color add $10.00

There is an Applicator Squeeze Tool that Seals these Tags.
The Photo Images is on the same Page.. $25.00
One Investment should take care of 10-12 Years of Cygnets.
https://nationalband.com/products/tab-end-681-2/

https://nationalband.com/metal-ear-tags/

*******************
If you have several Cygnets from one Brood that you are SURE you can monitor the Leg Bands..

Cable Tie ID Swan Cygnet
AND CHANGE as they Grow…….
Have at least 4 Colors of SMALL Cable Ties…
OR four Colors of Light weight Cotton Cord (Crochet Floss)…

Colored Bands to ID Cygnets
You can ID a Total of 8 Cygnets.
One of Four Colors on Left Legs
One of Four Colors on Right Legs

IF you need to ID more then 8 Cygnets..
Use combinations of 2 Colors… Keep Careful Records..

CYGNETS GROW QUICKLY… Change Cable Ties OFTEN..
NEVER Let the Cable Ties get Tight on their Legs..

Cable Tie ID Swan Cygnet

Before you Cut the Cable Tie – Slide a folded Piece of Paper
under the Cable Tie then Put the Scissors between the
Cable Tie & Paper.  This way you will not put any pressure on the Skin when you Snip the Cable Tie Off.
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

AVIANBioTech.com
http://www.avianbiotech.com/SexingCenter.htm
AVIAN Biotech Main Office in the U.S.A.
Toll Free: 1-800-514-9672 Outside the U.S.: 1-850-386-1145
Fax: 1-850-386-1146 Email: contact@avianbiotech.com
*************************************************
MAIL SAMPLES TO THIS ADDRESS:

Mail DNA Sample for Swans

AVIAN Biotech International
1336 Timberlane Road
Tallahassee, FL 32312-1766
*************************************************
AVIAN Biotech Office in England
Phone: 44-1872-262737 Email: contact@avianbiotech.co.uk
Website: www.avianbiotech.co.uk

Avian Biotech International UK
P.O. Box 107
Truro
Cornwall, TR1 2YR, England
************************************************
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

If you are Lucky to know Someone who can teach you to Vent Check the Swans/Cygnets, try to learn..
Then when you are unsure send a Sample for DNA-Sex Testing.

Male Mute Swan Cygnet
Not Finding “Male Parts” does not mean you have a Female.
It just means you did not find a Penis.
*********************************

It is Surprising how difficult it is to be sure if a Mute Swan is a Male or Female.  Look at this Breeding Pair – So Similar.

Breeding Polish Swans
Cygnets of all Swan Species are the same Challenge.

Black Australian Swan Cygnets
*********************************
Size of Swan – Size of Cygnet – Not Reliable

This past Summer we Rescued three Cygnets from the same Brood.
The Larger Smoky-Grey Cygnet was the Female.
The Two Smaller Creamy White Nest Mates were BOTH Males.

If we had just Guessed… we would be WRONG.

Mute Swan Cygnets
***************
Several Years ago.. A Swan Breeder with 20+ Years of Experience, claimed two Mature Swans that were always together were a Male/Female Pair.
A Person in Texas purchased this “Pair” and arranged for them to be shipped from Pennsylvania.
Off to Texas they Flew by Air Mail Cargo. By good fortune the two Swans arrived safe and sound.
But, it only took the new Owner a short time to realize both were MALE.
He was NOT Happy…
***************
We met an Older Gentleman with a Lone two year Old Swan on his Pond.  We hoped to help him find a Mate. He was SURE “Swanie” was a Female.

Two Year Old Mute Swan

I remember thinking, this Swan has a very large Knob and is “Busking.” I thought… Hummmm.. acts like a Male.

I was told, No.
A Person who “knows” how to Vent Check, had done so twice and determined “Swanie” was a Female.
I know “Looks” vary greatly.. Lone Females may behave more aggressive as a survival Tactic.

This Gentleman purchased a year old Male Cygnet.

Swan Companions
Four years passed….
The Swans spent more time with one fussing and chasing the other then being a peaceful Pair.
No Mating was observed – Nesting… Yes – Sorta.  NO Eggs.

Same Sex Male Swans

The purchased Male Cygnet had grown into a Large Dominant Male Swan. He would build the Nest and “Sit” on it..
“Swanie” was not allowed near the Nest. ???
The Owner was bewildered and frustrated at the Pair’s behavior.

I suggested several times this might be two Males.
But, the Owner was SURE he was right.

Same Sex Male Swans

One Winter Day, we had a chance to pull several Chest Feathers from “Swanie.”
When the DNA-Results came back…..
“Swanie” was confirmed a Male. The Owner was Shocked !!!

Same Sex Male Swans

NO Eggs after two Nesting Seasons when the Swans were 4-6 years old was the BIGGEST Clue.

Poor “Swanie” had been the Submissive Male to a Larger Male who was often Nasty to him.
*********************************
Size of Knob.. Not Reliable      Only Mutes have Knobs.

The Knob of both Male and Female Mutes changes through the Year as the Swan’s Hormones Increase/Decease annually..

Female Mute Swan Large Knob
The Knob on a Mute Swan will Change as their Weight Changes.
Healthy Swans tend to have larger Knobs – Underweight Swans have Smaller Knobs.

Female Mute Swan Knob

*********************************
Vocal Pitch-Sounds  

Listening to Cygnets and Adult Swans, I do hear that they all have their own “Voice.”  Each Cygnet in a Brood has a unique Chirp.  But, which are Male Vocals and which are Female.. ???

Singing Swan Sisters

*********************************
Behavior ??? Not Reliable

Some Females are Dominant when alone – Survival Mode.
We were fooled by a Large Swan living alone on the River near us.
But, Eggs in HER Nest and we realized this was a Mature Female.

*******************

When Two Females live together
–          One will be Submissive and the other Dominant.
There may be all ranges of behavior. They will Nest.
They may both build a Nest.
OR They may build One Nest together and put all their Eggs in one Nest.

Female Swan Nesting
One may do most of the Nest “Sitting.”
One may Patrol…
Depending on how closely you observe them….
You might be unaware they are both Female.
Nest Failure is Common..
so when the Eggs do not Hatch (Unfertilized)..
It may just be disappointing.
Blamed on a Very Cold or Wet Spring..

*******************
When Two Males live together
–         One Male will be Submissive – the other Dominant.
They may behavior like a Pair most of the time..
There tends to be more Fussing and Nipping.
When they Nest – NO EGGs. BIG CLUE.
*******************
An Online Story “Much Ado about a Mute Swan.”
2009-2010
The Website that Told this Swan Story is no longer Active.
The Story Summary:
“Prince” and “Princess” together for 21 years on a Community Lake.
They Nested every Spring out on the large Community Lake.
Each Spring the Community hoped and watched for Cygnets.
In 21 Years there were NEVER any Cygnets. ??? 21 Years.

Some Years “Prince” and “Princess” Nested together.
Some Years they both Built Nests. ??? Never any Cygnets.
Boaters went out to check the Nests… NO Eggs… 21 years.
When “Princess” died.. she was taken to a Veterinarian for a Necropsy.
The report – “Princess” was a Male.
–                               21 Years and NO ONE GUESSED !!!
**********************************

Coloring is NOT Helpful – Polish vs. Royal

Male Polish Mute Swan Cygnet
Old Published Information was misleading.
Not all Polish Cygnets are Female.. Surprise.. This is NOT True.
Black Feet – Brown Feet – Dark Orange Feet – Pink Feet.
Pull a Pink or Blue Slip of Paper out of a Hat Full of little Pieces of Paper.  With Lots of Experience you get better at Guessing.. GUESSING.

Female Polish Mute Swan Cygnet

FROM an ARTICLE Published around 2000

**** Creamy White Cygnets will be FEMALE… (WRONG)
They can be Pinioned on the Right without worrying about Vent Checks or DNA-Sex Tests. (WRONG)

Male Polish Mute Cygnets

This Information does NOT Hold TRUE.
I have heard others use this OLD Information..
–                                                      with the Polish Cygnets.

I had Read an Article about this, but that was found NOT TRUE.
That Article has been removed from the Internet.

This Brood of SIX Polish Mute Swan Cygnets
DNA-Sex Tested Four Female – Two Males…
************
From the RATTLING CROW June 2012

Conover MR, Reese JG, & Brown AD (2000).
Costs and Benefits of Subadult Plumage in Mute Swans: Testing
Hypotheses for the Evolution of Delayed Plumage Maturation.
http://therattlingcrow.blogspot.com/2012_06_01_archive.html

This Article Corrected the previous Information about the Polish Mutes.

*************************
We decided it is BEST to have All Swans and Cygnets regardless of Color – DNA-Sex Checked.

DNA Sex Tested Cygnets

**************************
There will be some Cygnets that will be a Silvery-Grey
–                                                         with Grey Feet and Beaks.

Male Mute Swan Grey Feet
Some are Male Some are Female.. WE TEST – NOT GUESS.

*************************************************
SO… We Send Samples for DNA-Sex Testing on ALL Swans and Cygnets we do not know. I would rather be sure then to “Guess.”

Swan Cygnet Feathered Out
********************************************************

******************************
WONDER DUST – Farnam Company, Inc.
Please Read the Ratings and Reviews..
I am not familiar with this Product.. But, I like the sound of this as a way to STOP Bleeding and Treat Minor Scrapes and Cuts on the Skin of a Swan and Cygnet.
I do know a Person who has used Wonder Dust and recommends it.
******************************

Wonder Dust
TRACTOR SUPPLY, Co. Check – Available in Store.
WONDER DUST
http://www.tractorsupply.com/tsc/product/farnam-wonder-dust-wound-powder-4-oz

Wonder Dust is a dressing powder and blood coagulant for use on certain types of wounds, cuts and abrasions. Please Read Complete Product Information.
******************************
SMARTPAK Farnam Wonder Dust Powder, 4 Oz.
https://www.smartpakequine.com/pt/wonder-dust-223
Information from this WebSite…..
Wonder Dust is a dressing powder and blood coagulant for use on wounds, cuts, abrasions, and capillary bleeding. Will stop bleeding fast, dry up the wound, and help control granulated tissue formation- a must for any first-aid kit!

Wonder Dust contains activated charcoal to help prevent proud flesh, and serves as a caustic and drying agent for slow-healing sores and infected lesions. Wonder Dust may be used with or without a bandage.
********************************************************

********************************************************
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

********************************************************

This a Work in Progress..
Information Collected and Organized by L.M.Sweger April 2016