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Under Tongue-Chin Impaction

January 28th, 2015 | Posted by LadyNerkle1 in Under Tongue-Chin Impaction - (Comments Off on Under Tongue-Chin Impaction)

When a SWAN Has a Lump/Bump Under their Chin..

This CAN be more Serious then You Might Think. 

UNDER TONGUE-CHIN IMPACTION

Sublingual Entrapment
OF Coarse Roots, Grass, Mud, Stones…

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

    Sublingual Impaction in WaterFowl
(Under the Tongue)

General Description
Bulge Visible Externally, Under the Chin.

   To Enlarge Images – Right Click Image then Open in a New Tab.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

 A Wad of Grass and other Things the Swan was Eating becomes Lodged
Under the Tongue in the Stretchy Chin Pouch.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

A Swan’s Chin Should be FLAT.. If there is a Lump/Bulge under the Chin there
is likely some Foreign Material that has Accumulated under the Swan’s Tongue.
This Dense Lump has the Potential of becoming Large Enough to make
Eating Difficult and May Result Over Time in the Swan STARVING… to Death.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

These Under Chin-Tongue Impactions can have Serious Health Impacts.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

When a Bulge or Protruding Lump is Observed Under a Swan’s Chin…
. . . It NEEDs Attention.
These BIG, Hard, REALLY Bulging Wads NEED to be Removed.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Our Experience with the Feral-Wild Swans is Limited.
But, NONE of these Swans had Under-Chin-Tongue Impactions.
The Difference – They are NOT Grazing on Short Lawn Grass.

Normal Swans
Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

As we have been Out and About Visiting with Swans and their Owners, 
We have Observed Swans with these Bulges Under their Chins.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Some of the Swan Owners Thought this was a Tumor..
and there was Nothing they would be able to do..

It is NOT a Growth,
but a Collection of Tough Grass Roots, Dirt, Sand, Small Twigs..etc.
Sadly, this May have a Tragic Outcome,
IF the Wad of Junk/Grass Under the Tongue is not Removed.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Some Swans are Prone to this and it becomes a Chronic Problem for them. 
Ingesting DRY Fibrous Foods (Short Grass) may be a Major Predisposing Factor
for Sublinqual Impactions to Form.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Some Swans only Need Help Once in a Great while to Remove this “Stuff.”
It is Simple to Lift OUT, Once you have the Swan in your Hands.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

If you Remove the “Wad” of Material when the Bulge Under the Chin is Small,
the Skin will NOT Stretch into a Loose Pouch Under the Chin.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Under Tongue Impactions may occur in both Captive and Wild (???) Swans..  
This is Easily Visible… A Bulging Pocket under the Chin.

The Following SWAN Species seem Prone:
Cygnus olor – Mute Swans and their Cygnets
Cygnus atratus – Black Australian Swans and their Cygnets

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction
Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Now she had a Patch of Longer Grass to Graze on… Doing Better.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction
Mute Swan Flat Chin
Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

The Chin of a Swan should be FLAT…

Swan Flat Chin
Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction
Swan Flat Chin
Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Some Breeds of Geese with Dewlap are also Prone to Impactions.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

The Swan Below has a Huge, Tight Impaction.. Her Chin Should look like the Edited Image.
Her Knob is Flat – She was Unable to Eat Normally.
With a Team of Helpers we were Able to Remove this Impaction.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

I have Observed some Swans Swinging their Heads with their Beak Open
TRYING to get this Material OUT ! !

The Male Swans below were Living on a Country Golf Course.
Grazing on SHORT CUT GRASS.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

This is a WAD of Material from Under a Swan’s Tongue.. the Impaction.
The Quarter is for Size Comparison.. Not in the Impaction.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Common Item in the Impaction:

The “STUFF” can be Lots of Things Found in your Swans’ World.

Fibrous Grass, Small Roots, Twigs, Fragments of Leaves, Feed, Sand, Soil, Mud, Gravel,
Animal Hair, Feather Fibers, String, Stiff Floating Pine Needles, etc, etc, etc.  
Almost Anything.

Cat Hair Shed
Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

There seems to be an Increased Incidence of this when Swans are Eating Feed,
Plant Material, Grasses and Soil without Water.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

*** TOUGH GRASS THATCH

The IMPACTION LUMP is Frequently a Wad of Tough Grass Fiber.

Swans Enjoy Grazing on Tender Lawn Grass Blades.
Grass is a Fiber Plant which Aids their Digestion.
Grass is Helpful to Balance the High Protein Value of Commercial Poultry Feeds.

Swans Living by a Lawn where the Grass is CUT SHORT will Pick at the Grass
Pulling Up the Tougher Parts of the Grass close to the Ground – the Thatch.

Short Cut Grass
Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Thatch is a Layer of Grass Stems, Roots, Clippings, and Debris that Settle
on the Ground and either Slowly Decompose and/or Accumulate over time.
Thatch Build-up is Commonly Found in Lawns where Grass has been
Cut Short and the Mulch is Left.

*** LETHAL PINE NEEDLES

Many Ponds and Lakes are Lined with Pine Trees.

Pond Pine Trees
Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

When kept in an Environment where there are Pine Needles on the Water
Swans can get these Needles in their Mouth while Eating and Drinking.

Pine Tree Needles
The Needles can get Stuck under their Tongues.

The Needles can get Stuck under their Tongues.
This may Never Happen – Just be Aware.

Pond Pine Trees
Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

The Very Stiff Needles may cause Pain, make Eating Difficult.
Swans may Slowly Die of Starvation

Pond Pine Trees
Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

*** MAMMAL HAIR

Some Impactions I have Removed were Mostly Hair.
Likely from Dogs or Cats or some other Animal that was Shedding in
an Area where the Swans were Grazing.

Dog Hair Shed
Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Swan will often Graze in the Same Pastures as the Horses..

Horse Hair Shed
Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

I have found Pieces of Feathers, String, ….

Swans Feathers Moulting 
Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

This “Plug of Junk” under the Tongue can Result in Increasing Difficulty
Eating and Drinking.  And Eventually Pressure Necrosis.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

The Swan Affected may Slowly Starve.. Weaken and Die..   (Severely Under Weight)

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction
Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Common Visual Signs include Difficulty Swallowing,
Ventral Intermandibular Swelling and Chronic to Severe Impactions.
The Swan below has the Severe Signs..  His Cheeks are Swollen.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

One Sign the Swan is in TROUBLE is when a Mature Mute Swan has a Flat Knob.
 This is a Visual Sign that the Swan is Under Weight.. Having Difficulty Eating.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

The Impaction below is a Collection of Roots, Mud, Small Stones, Grass Blades
and a few Clover Stems. You can not see the SMELL.
The Coins are to Show the Size of the Wad..

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

This Lodged Material will Slowly Ferment, ROT, Support Nasty Bacteria
and the Poor Swan will have this Smelly Material Squishing in its Mouth/Beak
each Time it tries to Eat or Drink.. YUCK !!

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Over Time the Rotting Material may Break-Down and Invade the Underside of the Tongue
or the Chin Tissues. This will Result in an infection of the Mouth Tissues..
Causing Tissue Pressure Necrosis. > > > NOT GOOD…

At this Stage the Swans will Definitely Need Veterinary Help.. likely Surgery..      
Weeks of Recovery with Antibiotics. (More Near End of Page)

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

From BackYard Poultry Medicine and Surgery
A Guide for Veterinary Practitioners Page 228/229
Edited by Cheryl B.Greenacre and Teresa Y.Morishita

While Eating Foods that Accumulates Lateral to the Frenulum Beneath
the Tongue Collecting into an Impaction.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Frenulum of Tongue – Wikipedia.
The Frenulum of Tongue or Tongue Web is a Small Fold of Mucous Membrane
Extending from the Floor of the Mouth to the Midline of
the Underside of the Tongue.

In Early Cases, the Beak can be Opened and the Material Simply Pulled Out.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

The Coins were NOT in the Impaction. – Just to Compare the Size.

DO YOUR BEST to Remove these Impactions when you see them
and whenever it Reoccurs to Reduce Risk of Permanent Dilatation under the Tongue. 
If the Impaction is left, or frequently Reoccurs, Surgery may be needed to Remove
the Loose Stretched Skin that Fills with Debris Easily.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Same Cob as Above.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Same Cob as Above.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

The BIGGEST most Challenging Thing you NEED to do is Catch the Swan.
 If you can Walk your Swan into a Fenced Area and/or Catch/Net the Swan on Land..
 that is the Easiest for EVERYOne ! !

Catching Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Trying to Catch Swans on their Water is a REAL Challenge.

Catching Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction
Catching Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Yes, Catching a Swan on Water is the Most Challenging.
Be Sure You Follow Proper Safety Rules..  LIFE Jackets.

Catching Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

The Goal is to Keep the Swans MOVING to Tire them.

Catching Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

   One or *Two or *Three People in Quick Moving Kayaks HELPS! 
Some Swans can be SLOWLY Guided off the Water.

Catching Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Having Two or Three or Four People Around the Pond is Very Helpful…
You will Need People to Net or Catch the Swans as they Leave the Water.

Minimize Shouting as Much as Possible.. Avoid Scaring the Swans.

Catching Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction
Catching Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction
Catching Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction
Catching Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Canoes and Row Boats are TOO Slow to Tire the Swans. 

Catching Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Once the Swan is Tired, they will Generally Go to Land and Get Out.

Catching Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

 Several Helpers Ready to Net and Calm to Swan..

Catching Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

One to Hold the Swan and Another to Remove the Impacted Material.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction  Flat Knob 
Catch Swan

We Want to SEE a Flat Chin – NOT a Flat Knob ! !

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction  Flat Knob

While you have your Swan, do a Quick Check of their Feet and Tongue Color.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction  Bumble Sore

If Possible Weigh the Swans or Check their Keel Bone to Estimate Weight.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

You WANT Your Swans to have FLAT Chins… 

It is EASY Once You have Hold of Your Swan. 

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Swans have VERY Little Bite Pressure – Gently Open the Beak.

To Open a Swan Beak 
Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction
Open Swan Beak
Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Either Lift the Nail or Apply a Little Pressure to Both Sides of the Jaw Hinge.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Gently PUSH UP Under the Chin.. the Material from under the Tongue.  
 Sweep it OUT.. (I use my Fingers and Wash Later.)
It is TOO Risky to use Metal Tweezers – the Swan Will NOT Hold Still.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Cotton Swabs will Help, if you are Prepared..
to Get Behind and Under the Ball of Tangled Fibers..and Dirt.. 

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Especially, if the Impaction is Very Larger or Just Small.. 
The Young Cygnet Above is Growing, Munching on Grass and has Started
a Probable Pouch of Material Under its Chin..  It is Small, Worth Watching.

It Might Clear as the Cygnet Eats and Drinks Out on the Pond/Lake it Lives on.. 
Keep a Close Watch.  Be Prepared to Help. 

Swan Under Tongue Chin Impaction

A Young Cygnet has a Much Smaller Mouth.. a Cotton Swab would be Useful.
Trying to get your Fingers in to Remove might be a Challenge..
and a Q-Tip will be Less Dramatic for the Little Ones.

Once you Remove the Debris – Check that there is Nothing Left under the Tongue.

Check the Tongue Color..  It should be a Nice Baby Pink..

SWAN Tongue Color-Anemia Guide
Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

If there is any Tissue Damage or Ulcerations on the Tongue
or the Skin Pouch Under the Tongue..  This can be Serious…
Check with your Avian Veterinarian for Further Treatment Advice.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

It is Recommended to Prevent Swans from Grass Grazing for 7-10 Days following
Removal of Simple Impactions.. This Time Away from Coarser Food hopefully
gives the Sublinqual “Pouch” Time to Return to Normal Size.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

If you have a Chance to Keep the Swan from Eating Short Cut Grass for a while
after you Remove a WAD.. this may give the Stretched “Pouch” Time to Return to Normal..

Floating Salad Greens 
Swan Under Tongue Chin Impaction

Giving Lots of Lettuce or Soft Vegetable Foods on the Pond Water
may Help Reduce the Risk of Re-Impaction..

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

ALSO Very Helpful… Try NOT to Cut the Swans’ Grazing Area Very Short…

Longer Grazing Grass 
Swan Under Tongue Chin Impaction

Swans Enjoy Grazing on Tender Grass Blades..
They Need the Vegetation/Plant Material for their Digestive System..

Lawn Clover 
Swan Under Tongue Chin Impaction

Swans Benefit from the Insects in Grassy Places.
(Crunchy Munchies)

Pennsylvania Meadow Katydid 
Swan Under Tongue Chin Impaction

Consider Alternating the Grass Area you Cut into Three Parts.
Cut One Area this Week.. Leave the Other Two Areas Grow..

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Then Next Week Cut the Longest, Shaggy Area.. leaving the Other Two..
Rotate so there are some Grassy Areas with Longer Tender New Growth..

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction
Mute Swans of Summer 
 Swan Under Tongue Chin Impaction

AS Time Goes By – And We Meet and Visit More Swans and their Owners..
We SEE more Swans with Under Tongue Impactions..

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

THIS is a VERY Common Problem with Captive Swans..
Many People who Care for Swans are UnAware..
This Junk may Collect in a matter of Weeks to Months.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

This is Fairly Easy to Correct.  These Swans are Uncomfortable.
The Rotting Material Under their Tongue makes Eating Difficult and Nasty..
 This can Lead to Tissue Destruction Under the Tongue.
Infection, Wasting, Starvation to Death.  HELP Your Swans.

REMOVE SUBINGUAL – Under Tongue Impactions..

More Examples….     WE Helped Removed these….

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction
Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

This Older Cob has had Impactions Removed Several Times.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

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Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction
Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

We Found this Young Female with a Large Impaction.
We Helped the Owner Remove this..

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

This Photo was Shared after this Pen had Died. Cause Unknown..
She has a Large Impaction and a Flat Knob !
  The Owners had no Idea this was Abnormal.. 

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

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This Poor Cob was Struggling to Swallow
with his LARGE Impaction.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

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This Swan with the Large Impaction Under the Tongue.
The Knob is VERY Flat..  This Swan is Starving..

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

We were Able to Catch and Remove the Impaction.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

This Swan has a Reoccurring Impaction Problem. It has Reformed.
He Looks so Thin..

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

I Tossed Lettuce and Floating Pellets into the Water…
This Cob did Not Try to Eat Any. He just Swam Away.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

We were Helpless to Help. The Owners did not Care.
This Swan is Starving.

******************************************************************

The Swan below had his Impactions Reoccur Over and Over..
As long as the Junk was removed when Needed, he did OK.
But, the Man who Cared for him Retired from the Golf Course.
No One Continued to Care for the Cob’s Obstructing Impaction.
The Mute Cob Died at the Age of ca. 10 Years Old.   So Sad..

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

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ANOTHER SCARY IMPACTION – THE Largest I have Encountered.

 Young Swans were Purchased for a Town House Complex Pond.
The Management wanted to have the Swans for the Pleasure of their Community. 

The Management did Not have Experience Caring for Swans. 
This Impaction was HUGE when this Young Swan Arrived. 
The Person who Raised these Swans was Responsible for the Impactions. 
It is NOT Difficult to SEE there is Something Wrong Under his Chin.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

 On a Dark Rainy Evening I had the “Opportunity” to Remove this
Tightly Packed Wad of Mud, Grass and Small Stones. 
I was Worried that I might Split the Skin Open, it was Stretched so Tight. 
Normally, I would Push-Up the Skin Under the Chin to Move the Material UP
Under the Tongue and Lift it OUT.   This Time I Opened his Mouth and Pinched
the Wad to Tug it OUT from Inside his Mouth.. 
I did not want to Stress the Skin Under his Chin. 

SUCCESS..  It was Packed IN TIGHT !     Poor Swan  (Young Cygnet)

 I Measured the Wad of Material before I Pulled it Apart..
I Usually Compare the Impaction Material with Coins.. THIS IS AN EGG.

Swan Under Tongue Chin Impaction
Swan Under Tongue Chin Impaction

When I Pulled this Huge Wad Apart.. the Smell was NASTY !

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

The Companion – Future Mate also had a Medium Impaction.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Thanks to a Willingness to Learn, the Management is now Caring
for their Swans’ Impactions and they will be Happier & Healthier Swans.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

*************************************************************

The Mature Male Swan below was Rescued by Folks just Learning about Swans. 
By Using this Topic Page.. his Impaction is OUT and he is Loved.
YEAH TEAM !!!
         And Another Swans is Helped…  Thanks.. 

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

His Chin Looks MUCH Better with this Wad of Muddy Fibers OUT !

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

************************************************************************

From Far, Far Away..  (In the United Kingdom) Help is ON the Way !!
A Visiting Friend of this Swan.. Read this Topic Page..
AND HELPED !!   THANK YOU !! 

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction
Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

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A Young Black Australian Cygnet in New Zealand..

Black Australian Cygnet 
Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Another Friend of Swans Removes a Wad of Plant Fibers.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction
Black Australian Cygnet
Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Two Weeks Later….
The Same Cygnet is Grazing on SHORT Cut Lawn Grass.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction
Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Two Weeks Later….
The Same Cygnet is Grazing on SHORT Cut Lawn Grass.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Two Week Later… Checked and Helped as Needed. 
This Young Cygnet has Collected Material Under its Tongue Over and Over.. 

This Cygnet has Easy Access to Very Short Cut Grass.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

The Cygnet Seemed to Know this Swan Friend would Help.
This Cygnet has a Chronic Problem and will Need to be Watched Closely.. 

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

*************************************************

 The Swans Below are in a Public Lake.  They Graze on the Short Grass.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

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FEED Your Swans in the Water as MUCH as Possible.  

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Eating their Foods With and IN the Water will Reduce this Problem.

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

   YOUR SWANS will be Healthier with a FLAT CHIN.. 

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction
Swan Healthy Chin Image
Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Some, a Few of these Impactions will Over Time Breakdown and Go Away.

But, MOST will Continue to Collect as the Swan Eats.
As the Impaction gets Larger, the Swan will have More and More Trouble Swallowing.
First, Food becomes Hard to Swallow, then even Drinking is Difficult.
These Suffering Swans will Slowly, Eventually Starve and Die.

As the “Junk” Decays, it is FULL of Bacteria that Tastes Terrible.
Every Time the Swans tries to Eat,
the Nasty Juice becomes Part of what they are Tasting.
They will Eat Less and Less.

Depending on how the Lump Decays, it can Rot the Tender Tissues Under the Tongue.
The Swan’s Future is now in Peril..

Few People are Willing or Able to have this Tissue Damage Surgically Corrected.

With Chronic Cases, an Intermandibular “Pocket” forms, Requiring Removal of
the Food and Surgical Resection of the Stretched Tissue..

The Bulk of the Impaction can be Removed Manually..
If the Mass is Large and Chronic..
It may cause Local *Oral Mucosal Necrosis and *Subcutaneous Food Invasion.

( I have Never Known of any Swans having Surgery for this. )
It is BEST to Avoid getting to this Stage.

Surgical Correction: A Ventral Intermandibular Approach is made
and All Remaining Food and Necrotic Tissue is Removed.

With or Without Subcutaneous Food Invasion, the Excess Sublingual “Pouch”
is Resected on either Side of the Frenulum (one or both sides may be stretched)
and Sutured Closed in a Simple Interrupted and Continuous Pattern.

The Goal is to Decrease the Potential Space to Prevent Future Impactions.

If the Subcutaneous Tissue is Infected and Cannot be Completely Removed,
further Surgical Correction may be necessary and Antibiotics may be Required..

Post-Surgery: Dry Fibrous Foods are AVOIDED.
Provide Access to Natural Pond Grasses (Swans)
OR Grass Prepared in a Food Processor.. OR Soggy Wet Pellets.

These are Intended to be Short Term Options.

The Swan’s Owners should Periodically Inspect the Oral Cavity
for Signs of Impactions for up to 3 Weeks Post-Surgery
and when Dry and Coarse Foods may Increase Risk of Re-impaction.

If you have ANY Question about Removing an Impaction..
Get IN TOUCH !

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

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This is a Work in Progress… Updated along the Way..
Information Compiled by (C) Linda M.Sweger   Updated  JUNE 2021
Thanks to the Swan Folks who have Shared Photo Images. &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

A Healthy Knob and a Flat Chin.. Lovely !

Swan Under Chin-Tongue Bulge Impaction

Mute Swans Nesting

January 20th, 2015 | Posted by LadyNerkle1 in Mute Swans Nesting - (Comments Off on Mute Swans Nesting)

Observing Nesting Swans is a Magical Time.

From Watching them Build their BIG Messy Nest to
Seeing them Care For and Protect their Eggs to 
The Tiny Downy Cygnets that Hatch in the Spring.

Mute Swans Nesting 

Bless Nesting Swans

Swans NestingThe BIG Messy Nest

Mute Swans Nesting

Mute Swan Eggs

 St.Francis Garden Nest

THIS TOPIC PAGE IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION.

This will be Developed as Time Allows.

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Information and Images Collected by Linda M.Sweger

2007-2017

Feeding Adult Swans – Captive Swans Need to be Fed

January 20th, 2015 | Posted by LadyNerkle1 in Feeding Adult Swans - Captive Swans Need to be Fed - (Comments Off on Feeding Adult Swans – Captive Swans Need to be Fed)

BIG Beautiful, Graceful Mute Swans are a Delight to Behold.

Once we Pinion or Clip to Ground them,
Swans DEPEND on their Caretakers to Provide a Healthy Diet.
Captive Trumpeter, Black Australian and Mute Swans are Domestic Pets.

Feeding Captive Swans

ALL CAPTIVE SWANS NEED TO BE FED !!!

I Originally Organized and Posted this Topic Page because I had Met Several People
who Did Not or Would Not Feed their Swans.. Or Fed the Swans Inappropriate Feeds.

To Enlarge Images – Right Click Image then Open in a New Tab.

Over the Years we have Learned many Things about Feeding Swans.
There is much more then Filling a Feed Bowl each Day.

Feeding Captive Swans

The Basic Feed Mixture Information is at the End of this Page.

 Feeding Captive Swans

NOTE: If a Swan tries to Eat TOO Fast..
Dry Feeds may get STUCK in their Esophagus and Block Swallowing.
Forming a Condition called “CHOKE.”
         This could be an Emergency…

SWAN Esophagus-Food
Feeding Swans

Supply Water with DRY Feed Mixtures.

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Over the Years I have heard: >>( Too many Times .)
 “Swans are Wild Waterfowl. Nature will Provide.”   
“They will Find the Food they Need and do not need Supplemental Feed.”

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

The Pond Above has Little to NO Water Plants for these Swans to Graze on.

The Spring and Summer Environments that Swans and their Cygnets Live and Grow in
will ALL be Different.  You will Need to be Aware of WHAT is Available for them to Eat.

The Pond Below has a Lot of Natural Plant Growth, String Algae and Water Critters.

Captive Mute Swans 
Feeding Swans

This Misconception to NOT Feed Swans seems to come from Various Sources..
Some Breeders may Live in Areas where there is Year Round Food Resources in their Pond.
Lots of Plant Growth, Insects, Tadpoles, Worms, Snails, Grubs, etc.

They Pass this Information on to Others without Considering
the Environmental Differences in Ponds and Lakes across the Country.

Natural Creek
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

The Remaining Feral Mute Swans Living in the United States will, on Average,
have a Territory Range of 3 to 5 SQUARE Miles that they will Access for their Nutritional Needs.
In Warmer States there may be Plenty of Vegetation, Grass Grains and Insects Year Round.

Migrating Tundra Swans
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Canadian Tundra and Trumpeter Swans Migrate South during the Fall to Areas
they know will Provide Food for themselves and their Growing Cygnets.

These Swans will graze on Grains in Fields of Cereal Crops like Corn, Wheat, Soy Beans..
Trumpeter and Tundra Swans are more Likely to be Seen in Grain Fields.

Migrating Tundra Swans
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Mute Swans are more Likely to be in a Watery Place.

Below are Three Feral Mute Swans Living Along a Pennsylvania River.

Mute Swans in Winter
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Mute Swans are NOT Migratory Waterfowl..
They will Stay in their Territory Year Round their Entire Adult Life,
Unless something Significant Changes for them…
Loss of Habitat, Loss of a Mate… Chronic Harassment.

Feeding Captive Swans
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Feral Mute Swan will Fly/Move to Open Water in Winter Months
if their Normal Water Environment Freezes.

Their Absence during Nesting Season may cause some Folks
to think these Mute Swans have Migrated.
Feral-Wild Mute Swans will Generally Seek a more Private Location to Nest.

Mute Swans Nesting
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

For Whatever Reason: “Wild-Feral Mute Swans Do Not Nest where they Live,
and they Do Not Live where they Nest.”

For Two Months, Feral Mute Swans will likely Find a Private Place to Mate,
Nest and Hatch their Brood of Cygnets.

Mute Swan Nest
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

The Location may only be a Half Mile or so away from their Normal Range.
They are likely to Return to their Normal Territory once their Nest is “Closed” for the Season.
Returning with Tiny Cygnets that are NOT Capable of Flying or Migrating.

Feeding Adult Mute Swans 
 Mute Swan Cygnets

MUTE SWANS DO NOT MIGRATE.

*************************************************************

In the Parts of the Country where Winter Climate causes Plant Materials to become Dormant,
Feral Mute Swans will have a Much Harder Time Finding Satisfactory Sustenance Food.

Mute Swans Winter
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

If Swans are Caring for First Year Cygnets..
This may cause the Smaller Cygnets to Weaken and Die from Starvation.
Cygnets that Hatch Late in the Season are Especially at Risk..

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

I have watched Feral Mute Swans Attempt to Eat the Decaying Vegetation and Leaves
they find in Shallow Water; the same Plants that provided Food during the Warmer Seasons.
This Organic Material will have some Small Food Value,
there may be a Few Calories Left in the Decaying Fibers.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

During Warm Weather, Lawn and Field Grasses will Yield Tasty Insects.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

With the Summer Lawn Grasses to Graze on.. Watch for Under Chin-Tongue Impactions..
Short Cut Grass is a Common Culprit..

If you Only Mow 1/3 of the Grass along the Pond each Week. Leaving 2 Areas Grow..
Swans ENJOY the Tender Grass Growth..
Then the Next Week, Mow a Different Area.. (Rotating)
There will be Some Longer Grass Blades for the Swans to Graze on.

Allow a Strip of Grass to Grow along the Pond – the Grass Seed Heads will be a Treat.

Plus the Longer Grasses will have more Insects for the Swans to Munch on.
(-; (-: (-; (-:

Under Chin – Under Tongue Impactions will Make Eating DIFFICULT !!
  This Swan NEEDED Help..

Swan Under Tongue Impaction
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

The Under Tongue/Chin Impaction was Preventing her from Eating.

Under Tongue-Chin Impaction
https://swanlovers.net/category/under-tongue-chin-impaction/

Swan Under Chin Impaction
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Removing these Wads of Junk-Debris from under the Tongue is Simple,
ONCE you have Hold of your Swan..

**********************************************

When there is Snow Cover on Lawns and Fields, they will not even have this Meager Food Source.
Hungry Waterfowl will Pick at Field and Lawn Grasses Attempting to find some Calories..
Something to Fill their Gizzard.

Swans Snow Covered Lawn
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

All Living Creatures Can Live for a Period of Time without Adequate Food,
as Long as they have Water to Drink.
Swans Living on Ponds/Lakes have Water.. but, Foods MAY be VERY Scarce.

Swan Winter Feed
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Swans are Warm Blooded Creatures, they have a Metabolism like all Warm Blooded Creatures.

Healthy Mute Swan
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

When Food is Limited or Absence they will Slow Down,
Try to Conserve and Convert their Body Fat, Muscle Proteins
– Losing Weight the Same as any Animal or Human.

Underweight Mute Swan
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Wild/Free Waterfowl will Generally Fly in Search of Food.
Pinioned/Captive/Fenced Waterfowl that are Starving
will become increasingly Desperate
and will Eat increasing amounts of Mud and Soft Topsoil.
There are some Organic Materials and Minerals in Mud and Topsoil…

Feeding Captive Swans
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Hopefully a few Dormant Insect Grubs, Worms, Snails, etc.
These Critters are Calcium and Protein Rich..

Feeding Captive Swans
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

If this goes on Too Long, their Gizzard may become “Sand Bound.”
Topsoil and Mud contains Silica/Sand.

Sand feels Gritty when Rubbed between the Fingers.
Birds/Waterfowl regularly Ingest Small Amounts of Grit to Aid Digestion
of the Food in their Gizzard. Eating Small Amounts of Dirt, Mud is Normal.

Feeding Swans

When Digestible Food is Absent for Long Periods of Time,

the Gizzard may become “Sand Bound.”

Once this happens there is NO Room for Digestible Food….
Death from Starvation will likely follow.
************************
Sand is a Naturally Occurring Granular Material Composed of
Finely Divided Rock and Mineral Particles.
The Composition of Sand is Highly Variable,
depending on the Local Rock Sources and Conditions.
The Most Common Constituent of Sand in Inland Continental Settings
and Non-Tropical Coastal Settings is Silica (silicon dioxide, or SiO2),
usually in the Form of Quartz.

Feeding Captive Swans
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Sand is NOT Digestible.
It will Pass Through a Bird’s Digestive System
along with the Plant Fiber of their Normal Diet.
************************
Until now, I was Referring to the Feral Mute Swans Living in a 3-5 Square Miles Range.

Since Pennsylvania and Many other States have ZERO Tolerance Policy for Feral Mute Swans.
The Above Information is Academic.. FYI – Feral Mute Swan are Routinely Destroyed.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Their Freedom was Short Lived.. Images Posted onLine Brought Hunters..

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****************************************************************************************

Next, I want to Discuss Captive Swans Living in the Care of Human Caretakers.  
Living in a much Smaller Environment.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Captive Swans are No Different then Pet Dogs, Cats, Horses, etc.  
They NEED to EAT ! !

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Just Like Cat, Dogs, Horses, Goats, Pigs, Chickens, Ducks, etc..
Swans are Warm Blooded, they have Blood, Brain and Nerve Fibers.
They have Skin Tissue, Many Muscles, Light Weight Bones.   
And Beautiful White Feathers.
All these Body Systems NEED Nutrients.

************************
**** CAPTIVE SWANS NEED TO BE FED !!!!

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

All Animals and Birds we Bring into our Lives are Subject to a Wide Range of Care.
From the Total Care of Pets that become Cherished Members of our Family Life,
to Farm Live Stock Raised for their Meat, Milk, Eggs, etc.

Back Yard Chickens
Feeding Swans

..To the Sad Neglected, Forgotten, Discarded, Abused Animal Cruelty Cases
We see on various TV Animal Rescue Programs.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

The Female Mute Swan in the above Image..
She and her Brother were Fed Floating Fish Pellets..
Fish Pellets Average 35% Protein.. this will cause Lipidosis Over Time.
He Died before he was 18 Months Old and she Died at 4 Years Old. 

LIPIDOSIS: a Disorder of Fat Metabolism especially Involving the Deposition
of Fat in an Organ ( as the Liver or Spleen ).

Mute Swans Need to Eat
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

She Never got to Lay her First Egg..
Both Young Swans were found Floating in their Pond.. ( at Different Times.)
I Tried to tell these Folks.. they would not Listen..

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Swans Fed a High Protein Diet …Look Big and Healthy… They are NOT Healthy.

*****************************************************
Folks who have Appropriate Water Environments to Care for Swans,
may Desire to have them for Various Reasons.
Not all People will take the Time to Research Swans
so they are Prepared to Provide Appropriate Care.

Swan Poor Diet
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

The Swans I WORRY about are the Swans Chosen to be Living Lawn and Pond Ornaments.

Swans are NOT Lawn or Pond Ornaments
https://swanlovers.net/category/swans-are-not-lawn-ornaments/

The Striking Beauty of Graceful Swans will Enhance any Property.
The Novelty of having Swans may Pass and Neglect is likely to Follow.

Having Swans is a Commitment.
They may easily Live 25-35 Years or Longer with Good Care and Some Luck.

Healthy Male Mute Swan
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

If you Tire of Caring for your Swans, ReHome them to another Interested Person.
NEVER Release any Swan into the Environment. NEVER.. ! !
It is ILLEGAL ALL Across the United States and Canada
to Deliberately Release a Mute Swan or their Growing Cygnets.
Discarded Pet Swans will likely be Destroyed.

Discarded Pet Swan
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

            This Gentle Swan was Shot by a Hunter in 2008.

***********************************************************

There are so many Different Regulation Governing the Ownership of Mute Swans
from State to State, You will need to check the Codes, Policies and Rules for your State..

I have Found it Impossible to Keep Up with all the Revisions and Changes
of Mute Swan Policies Across our Country.. 
You May NOT Find the Most Current Information on the Link Below.. 
Do Various Key Word Searches for your State.

Where to Find Mute Swan Information for Your State
https://swanlovers.net/category/where-to-find-mute-swan-information-for-your-state/

Feeding Captive Swans
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

“Can Animal Rights Be Legally Defined?”
In 1978 the HSUS, Humane Society of the United States defined Animal Rights.
“Animals have the right to live and grow under conditions
that are comfortable and reasonably natural.  
Animals that are used by man in any way have the right to be free from abuse,
pain, and torment caused or permitted by man.
Animals that are domesticated or whose natural environment is altered by man
have the right to receive from man adequate food, shelter, and care.”
Changes to their Environment or the Landscaping may Alter their Food Supplies.

Pinioned Mute Swan
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Pinioning any Waterfowl… Changes Everything.

In the U.S. Mute Swans “Owned” by Humans are generally Pinioned
to Restrict their Ability to Roam at Large.

They are Classified as:
Captive, Domestic, Exotic, Poultry. (Not Wild)

Like ALL Animals and Birds Living in Captivity.
They are Entitled to:  
 1. Adequate and Appropriate Food
2. Adequate Fresh Water
3. Appropriate Shelter
 4. Reasonable Safety from Harm
 5. Veterinary Care when Needed

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

The First Rule for Keeping Swans in the Location you want them…. is
  #1. “Feed them and they will Stay.”
Feeding Your Swans is NOT a Guarantee they will Stay on your Pond.
Adequate Food is a BIG Part of their Comfort.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Swans on a Private Pond are Somewhere between Captive and Free.

“Swans do NOT Read the Books” about their Expected Behavior.
Swans will have many Surprises as you Enjoy their Beauty and Learn about them.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Mother Nature has Evolved Birds/WaterFowl to be able to do some Amazing Things.
Living without Food is Not One.. Imagine Watching these Captive, Graceful Birds,
unable to tell their Caretakers that they are Hungry.
Respect and Good Care will allow Swans to Enjoy Living with us/you for a Long Time.

Swan Diet
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Spread the WORD…. Swans need to Eat.

Living on a Totally Natural One Acre Pond with NO Chemicals to Altering the Plant Growth
and Insects is Recommended for One Pair of Adult Mute Swans.

Natural Rural Pond
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

The Swans can Graze during the Summer on Yummy Stuff – Pond Stew..

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Water Insects, Tadpoles, Fish Spawn, Dragonfly Larva, ETC, Etc…. Pond Critters.
Feeding Swans

Snails and Slugs provide many needed Nutrients..
You will see them Poking into Shallow Mud seeking Things to Munch on..

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

    A Natural Pond “MAY” Supply all the Swan’s Need.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

The use of Lawn Care Products, Insect Controls and Fertilizers Changes the Natural Balance.

Underwater Plants may not be Sufficient,
the Lack of Insects will impact Protein and Calcium Resources.
Feeding Swans

If Swans Need to Leave their Water to Eat…. they become Vulnerable to Predators,
Unleashed Dogs, Vehicles and Vandals who Look to Harm them.
Feeding Swans

Pinioned and Clipped Swans are more Vulnerable when they are Away from their Ponds.
Swans in Water are SAFER…. It is also more Natural for them…

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

The Lovely 1 – 1/2 Acres Golf Course Irrigation Pond in the Below Image
had NOTHING Growing in the Water.  NO Plants, DuckWeed or Algae..   
AND…No Water Insects or Mosquitoes  ! !

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

There were Lots of Common Carp, Blue Gill and Bass.
The Fish Populations were Consuming the Few Natural Plants & Insects.. 

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Carp EAT a Variety of Foods. They favor Insects, Aquatic Worms, Crustaceans.
They consume Algae and Under Water Plant Matter.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

These are the Same Pond Things the Swans would Eat..

Swans Long Necks can reach down under the Water about Three Feet.
You will see them “Up-Ending” with their Tails Pointing Straight up in the Air.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans
Up - Ending

Use a Rake and Sweep Along the Water Edge Two to Three Feet Down..
Are there Under Water Plant.. ??  Or are they Absent.. ???
Your Swans MAY/Will NEED Daily Feeding Year Round..

Captive Black Australian Swans
Feeding Swans

The Public Park Lake Above is Treated with Dark Shade Dye to Prevent Algae and Duckweed.
There are NO Natural Plants – NONE.

Organic Pond Run Off
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Fertilizers and Animal Waste Run-off will create Organic Changes to a Pond/Lake
allowing for a Wide Variety of unwanted Plant Growth.  Big Subject…. LOTS of Variations.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Waterfowl/Swans may be able to Help Control some Nuisance Plants..
like Algae, Duckweed and Watermeal..
but, they still need other Nutrients in their Year Round Diet.

Pond Watermeal Duckweed
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Swans are LARGE Waterfowl… They may Foul a Small Retention Pond with their Poop !
A Water Environment with Flow-through to Refresh the Water is Preferable.

Feeding Swans
Swans Retention Pond
Organic Waste  Poop

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Mute Swans can Live a Very Long Time with Good Care.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

The Less they Need to Dig in the Mud/Dirt for Nutrition,
the Less Chance they will Acquire Parasites.
Feeding Swans

Because Mute Swans Feed off the Bottom Mud of a Pond or Lake,
which is where Pesticides and Heavy Metals tend to Accumulate,
Severe Drought may Expose your Swans to Dangerous MUCK..

Pond Muck: is the Black, Brown, Sticky, Slimy Goop that Settles on the Bottom
of most Ponds and Lakes. It tends to Build-up over time without Methods to Prevent it.
Muck Results from Dying and Decaying Organics like Algae, Tree Debris-Leaves,
Excessive Grass Clippings, Animal Waste Run-off, Fish Waste, Etc.

Mute Swan Pens Eating Digging 
 in Mud for Insect Larva 
Feeding Swans

During Warm Dry Months, Stagnant Muddy Water will put Waterfowl at Risk
of Avian Botulism – Fatal Clostridia and other Pathogenic Anaerobic Bacteria.
These Bacteria Synthesize and Release Poisonous Substances called Exotoxins

We lost Little “Hannah” to Clostridia after Nesting in 2010.
We lost Sweet “Spring” to Clostrida after Nesting in 2018.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Providing a Container of Fresh Clean Water would seem Helpful…

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

But, Waterfowl will still Drink the Pond/Lake Water.

Mute Swan Mud
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

His World is Nothing but Water and Mud.
( We Brought this Feral Cob Food and Treats. )
Feeding Swans

&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

There are Pro and Con Discussion about Feeding Wild Waterfowl-Swans Bread.
Captive Pet Swans should have a Good Appropriate Diet..

What NOT to Feed Swans: Anything that is NOT Healthy for us:
Sugary, Starchy, Fatty Foods, Crackers, Pop-Corn, Chips, Cakes, Cookies, etc.

Milk Dairy Products: Birds Lack the Enzymes Necessary to Digest Milk Sugar, Lactose.
Do NOT Feed Swans Onions, Garlic, Mushrooms or Avocado.

We Avoid Bread. DO NOT ALLOW others to Feed your Swans Bread.
There is Little to No Nourishment in White Bread for Waterfowl.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans    Bread

White Bread is Poorly Digested, causing Indigestion and Bloating.
Yeast may Grow in the Gizzard causing Chronic Digestion Problems.
Bread is High in Sugar and Salt Taxing a Birds’ Kidneys and other Organs.

The Swans and other Waterfowl Below – Live on a Popular Community Lake.
The Public brings the Waterfowl mostly Bread ALL Day Long.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans    Bread

During the Summer Months Bread is a Dangerous Food for Waterfowl.
Molds Growing on Bread may be Fatal.
Some Molds will cause Fatal “Limber Neck” Disease.
Once the Toxic Mold is in the Swan, there is VERY Little you can do
to Reverse these Debilitating Toxic Secretions. Their Mortality Rate is Very High.
The Swan becomes Weak, can not hold their Neck up.. becomes Limp.

Feeding Swans   Bread
Limber Neck Clostridia

If they are in the Water, they may Drown.
On Land, the Weakness will Affect their Ability to Breathe.

The Hazards of Feeding BREAD to Swans/Waterfowl
https://swanlovers.net/category/bread-is-a-no-for-swans/

If YOU want to Feed Swans Bread, then ONLY during Cold Winter Months
(Fall Frost to Last Spring Frost).
Buy FRESH, Freeze and Feed One Slice per Day Coarse Grain or Wholemeal Bread
with Seeds and Grains Incorporated into the Bread is a Better Option.

Feeding Swans Bread

The Grain Seeds Provide some Extra Oils, which Aid the Absorption
of Fat Soluble Vitamins – like Vitamin A, C, D, E, K, Thiamine, Riboflavin,
Niacin, B6, B12, Folic Acid,       …ALL Important for Good Health.

&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

If you Enjoy having Swans, the BEST Thing you can do for them is
Provide a Wide Variety of Food Items.

**************************************************

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

It “Should be Reasonable” to think that Dog Food is for Dogs,
Cat Food is for Cats and Horse Feed is for Horses…

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

PLEASE DO NOT Feed these Feed Formulas to Swans.

SWANs are POULTRY – Waterfowl…
FEED them a Formula for Poultry – Waterfowl ! 
You will Need to Mix and Blend to a Safe Protein Level..

**************************************************

SWAN FEEDING 
Chewy Delivery

Chewy.com is a Great Way to Order and have Many Feed Products Delivered.
. . . with Orders of at Least $50.00 – Delivery is Free.

This Saves Time and Gas.. Thanks Chewy !

Choose a Good Commercial Poultry or WaterFowl Feed:
**NON-Medicated **Poultry Maintenance Feed
       Mixed with Corn and Grain to Keep the Protein Level LOWER.

Keep the Lysine Level LOW – One Percent – 1.00%or Less.

It is Not Wise to Purchase Bag Feeds Too Far Ahead.
If you Live where there is HUMIDITY.. In the South or North in Summer Months.
Heat and Humidity can Cause Mold to Develop in UnOpened Bags – Spoiling the Feed.
NEVER Use ANY Feed that Looks or Smells Moldy.. DISCARD !

Corn and Grain Feeds may Hatch Tiny Harmless Insects in Hot Storage Areas..

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans  Corn

These Tiny Insects – Likely Corn or Wheat Weevils are OK for Swans to Eat.
Swans EAT Lots of Insects – They are Part of their Natural Diet.

****************

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans
Corn and Grain Feeds

The Earth is NOT Homogeneous.
You will NOT Find ALL Minerals and Trace Elements Naturally Everywhere.
Deficiency in Vitamins is a Common Problem with Captive Waterfowl.

By Using a Good Formulated Feed..
It will not Matter where in the World your Swans are
they will be Getting Necessary Vitamins and Minerals and Trace Elements..

All Needed for Good Nutrition and Health.

*************************************************

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

We > > HAD BEEN USING   
**Southern States 18% Waterfowl Floating Pellets 2015 thru 2019. 
 WE STOPPED !

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

This Feed Product has Changed..  >> This Feed is No Longer Available. 
Most Folks in my Network who were Using this Bag Feed have Stopped.  
The Southern States Feed is NOT Consistent in Size or Color.. and it Barely Float.
This  has > > > Changed ! A Sad Fact !

Most Folks who Care for Swans have Decided to Use
Mazuri Floating WaterFowl Feed.
Mazuri WaterFowl Feed has been Used by Swan Owners for many Years.
This Product is Available Across most of the Country.

*****************************************************

The First Thing I ask Swan Folks who have Swans Die without any Obvious Reason..
Is… What were You Feeding them..???
If the Answer is a High Protein Diet.. Be Aware ! !

A Steady High Protein Diet will Significantly Shorten a Swan’s Life..
Every Year I hear from Folks who have “Healthy” Swans Die without a Reason.. 
They are Unaware of this being an Issue..

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Their Swans LOOK Big and Healthy.. and are Suddenly Found Dead..
NO Visible Reason.   It Fits a Sad Pattern..
Swans Fed a High Protein Diet.. will Frequently Die within Several Years.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

We had a Young Female, “Little Hannah” that someone else was Feeding for us… 
She was on a Pond with their Young Swans..
In ONE Month “Hannah’s” Kidneys were Permanently Damaged.

I Provided the Feed Mixture I wanted for our Female..
but, the Woman kept giving “Hannah” her Feed..
Straight from the Bag – 16% Protein Grower.. We Moved “Hannah” ASAP… 

Feeding Swans 
High Protein Feeds

We took “Hannah” for Several Visits to the Vets.. for Blood Chemistries..
Results.. Elevated Kidney Functions – Three Times Normal !
We Repeated these Chemistries Several Times, Hoping for Improvement..
NOPE – Her Kidney Damage was Permanent.   
So…. we had to Feed “Hannah” a Diet with Very Little Protein.
She did not get to be 4 Years Old. Heartbreaking..

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

We lost Little “Hannah” to Clostridia after Nesting in 2010.

&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

Swans NEED more Supplemental Food during Cold Weather.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Depending on the Winter Conditions, Swans will need more Calories
when they are Subject to Winter’s Cold Temperatures.  Increase their Daily Feed Rations.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

They need Daily Food for the Quick Energy Calories to keep Warm.
Avoid Yeast, Sugar, Dyes and Salt.

Swans Cereal Snack Mix
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Swans Cereal Snack Mix         I Check the Ingredients..
Choose Cereals that are Low in SALT, SUGAR, have NO DYES or YEAST.
Whole Grain Cereals are Better Treats then MOST Human Snack Foods.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

We try to use Cereals that Float.. Cereals that Sink are Wasted. ( Become Fish Food. )
OR Place the Cereal Treat in a Shallow Pan of Pond Water..
One of our Little Pens LOVED the Gritty Grape Nuts Mixed in with Wet Whole Corn.

Feeding Captive Swans
Swans Cereal Snack Mix

Plain Kix, Whole Grain Cheerios, Plain Corn and Bran Flakes Float.

Swans Cereal Snack Mix
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Then there are a Few Times when the Cereal is just Silly Fun !

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Occasional some Tossed Cereals Lands on their Back – Between their Wings.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

No Fuss – No Muss – Just Turn their Lovely, Long Neck for the Treats !

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans
Swans Cereal Snack Mix
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Some Swans enjoy Plain Graham Crackers. 

Mute Swan Treats Graham Crackers
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

These can be Broken into One Inch Squares.. and Frisbeed Out to the Swans.

Swans Cereal Snack Mix 
Graham Crackers
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

It is Proper Order to give the First Treat to the Dominant Female Swan
then alternate between the other Swans on the Pond. 

 Feeding Swans  Graham Crackers
Swans Cereal Snack Mix

If there are Lots of Fish in the Water, they will QUICKLY Snatch these Treats.

Swans Cereal Snack Mix
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Swans are Grazers not Gobblers.

Swans are Grazers – Eating Small Amounts throughout the Day.
Their Food goes into their Gizzard to be Ground into a Form they are able to
Digest/Absorb… Swans will Ingest some “Grit” everyday to Aid this Breakdown…

Swans Naturally Eat Small Amounts throughout the Day.
Since Swans are Programmed to Fly, they will Generally Not Over Eat.
Every Extra Ounce their Body does Not Need will make Flight more Difficult.
When their Diet is Not Balanced, they may Over Eat Starchy Grains ( like Corn ),
Trying to get the Minerals and Vitamins their Body’s are Craving.

Mute Swans Grazing
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

The Bone Structure of Birds is a Light-Weight Scaffolding.
There are just Enough Minerals to Form Rigid Bones.

BIG Swan Eggs
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Female Swans need Extra Calcium Rich Feeds.
Females Give-up their Body Calcium to Coat their Large Eggs.
Once the Cygnets Hatch, the Female Usually Ingests the Shells
to Reclaim some of this Calcium.

Mute Swan Nest
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

If the Female is not able to Eat these Shells due to some Loss of the Eggs
– Due to Flooding, Spoiling, Egg Predation
or Management Replacement Removal she will Benefit from your Help.

Mute Swan Eggs
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

To help Supply your Pen’s Calcium Need, it is a Very Good Practice Starting in January,
to Add some Egg Layer Feed to their Regular Feed Mix.
The Eggs she Lays in the Spring will be Stronger
and she will Not Need to Sacrifice as much Calcium from her Body.

Crushed Poultry Oyster Shell
Feeding Captive Swans

There are Commercial Crushed Oyster Shell Products for Poultry to Supply Necessary Calcium.
I See this Frequently in Containers on Farms with Chickens.
I had to Laugh at the Hen Above Nesting in the Oyster Shell Bucket.
But, REMEMBER having Any Feed in a Metal Container OUTSide is NOT Safe.

Nesting Female Swan
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Once her Cygnets Hatch, the (Female-Pen) Dam Swan is HUNGRY for EVERYTHING.
A Good Balanced Feed Mix with some Extra Calcium, will Help her Body Recover
from the Five LONG Weeks of “Sitting” with VERY little to Eat.

“Sitting”Pens Barely Eat for 35 Days… >>>> This is Nature’s Plan.
They Typically will Start to EAT the Two Days before their EGGs are going to Hatch.. 
( A Signal to Watch for. )

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Because their Necks are Long and Slender Swans want to Eat their Foods Wet..

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Swans have a Wide, Flat Beak with Tiny Serrations called “Lamella” along the edge.
Their Beak is Designed for Biting and Tearing Water Plants.  ( They have Little Bite Pressure.)
As Swans Open and Close their Beak, they Strain Water from their Food.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Corn Alone is NOT a Complete Diet.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans
SWAN Esophagus-Food
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Swans are Grazers.. they Nibble all Day.

Because their Neck is Long and Slender,
Swans like to have Water with Every Bite to make Swallowing EASIER.

Mute Swans Grazing
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

NOTE: If a Swan Tries to Eat TOO Fast..
The Dry Feed may get STUCK in their Esophagus and Block Swallowing. 

Forming a Condition called “CHOKE.”
         This could be an Emergency… 

Choke or Choking means that a Cygnet/Swan is unable to Swallow or Breathe
because something is either Partially or Completely Obstructing their
Esophagus or their Windpipe.

A Swan that is Choking will have Difficulty Swallowing,
it may be Gasping for Breath, or it may be Opening the Beak
with an Exaggerated Motion and Attempting to Regurgitate or Gag.

The Cygnet/Swan may begin Extending and Twisting its Neck, Gasping for Air.

Place the Cygnet/Swan on your Lap – Lower the Head and Neck..
Gently Manipulate Along the Neck to Dislodge the Obstruction.

If you Suspect that a Cygnet/Swan has Inhaled a Fluid or Small Object
that has Entered the Trachea ( Windpipe ), you can Attempt to Dislodge,
by Short Quick Inward Compression of the Keel/Breast Area.
You are Basically Preforming the Standard Heimlich Maneuver
that is used for a Choking Human.

Listen for Air Exchange.. that the Cygnet/Swan is Breathing..
Place your EAR on their Back between the Wings.. Listen for Breath Sounds.
Seek Veterinary Assistance/Advice Immediately following this Maneuver.

If you Suspect your Swan has Aspirated you Should Seek Veterinary Care Immediately.
Your Cygnet/Swan may need Antibiotics to Prevent Pneumonia.

Supply Water with DRY Feed Mixtures.
Do NOT Put Dry Feeds on the Ground.
This will Promote Mold, Bacteria, Parasites, etc.
Feeding Swans

You Can See in the Image Above.. it is an Effort to Eat the Feed Dry.   

*************************************************************

When Food-Feed is only Available Once or Twice a Day,
Shared from a Tub or Bucket for Assorted Waterfowl,
a Swan will Gobble in a Hurry knowing there will be Nothing
until the Bucket is Filled Later or the Next Day.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

The Swan Below was Eating TOO Fast his Neck is Bulging.
This is NOT Normal Eating Behavior for a Swan.
This is the way Ducks and Geese Eat.. they are Gobblers.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

************************************************************

Migrating WaterFowl may Bring Diseases to Your Pond.
IF you are Able to Avoid Feeding them.. Try Not to..

Migrating Ducks
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

One Scary Disease is Duck Viral Enteritis.   DVE
Another is Avian Influenza.. Very Contagious.
Healthy Domestic Ducks, Geese and Swans will Start to Die in just a few Days.
While the Wild Carrier Waterfowl just Fly Away.

In 2022 in Many States, Including Pennsylvania we are Dealing with Avian Influenza.

DEADLY AVIAN INFLUENZA
https://swanlovers.net/category/deadly-avian-influenza/

*****************************************************

Try to find a Way to Feed your Swans so they Do Not Need to Leave the Water.
They are SAFEST in the Water. Swans WANT Water with their Feed-Foods.

Feed Swan in Water
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Try to Find a Place You will be SAFE
Servicing their Food-Feed Station in the Winter.
*****************************************************

Some Feeding Ideas. Many Thanks to All who Shared their Ideas.
Things to Think about. Nice to Vary Feedings for the Swans…

Swan Feeding Station Ideas
https://swanlovers.net/category/feeding-stations-for-swans/

Swan Vegetarian
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

In addition to a Healthy Feed Mixture REMEMBER Swans are Vegetarians.

Swans are Vegetarians
https://swanlovers.net/category/swans-are-vegetarians/

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

IF YOUR LAWN DOES NOT HAVE CHEMICAL LAWN CARE PRODUCTS.

A Good Source of Fiber and Crude Plant Protein is Lawn Grass.
This has a Natural Low Protein Level… 4% or less…

They like Fresh Cut “Untreated” Grass.. Put Out into the Pond.

Swan Fresh Grass
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Grass Floats and they can Graze on it. Not Enough to Clog Drains or Spillways..
But, maybe a Gallon or so…
Just be sure the Mower Bag does NOT contain any MOLD..

Fresh Pond DuckWeed
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

The Swans Above have a Treat of DuckWeed not Normally in their Pond.
Their Owner Visits a Friend with DuckWeed on his Pond and Brings Home a Bucket FULL.

************************************************************************

Most SWANS LOVE LETTUCE…
If you Toss a Head of Iceberg Lettuce on the Pond..
They will Play with it like a Soccer Ball.  Or Push it Under to Pop-Up.
Fun to Watch them Take Turns, Biting the Head and Tossing it About.

Swans Lettuce
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Lettuce Play – “Let-Us-Play”
https://swanlovers.net/category/lettuce-play/

***********************************************

When I Opened and Drained a Can of Tuna.. Both Oil or Water Packed,
I Saved the Fluid to Mix with their Lettuce. SWANs LOVE THIS !!!

********************************************************

A FUN TREAT is to Catch or Buy a Few Crickets..
Toss them One at a Time, Out on the Water near the Swans.
Ours would Only Eat 2-3 per Day. But, they do like them…

***********************************************************************

*** Swans are VERY Sensitive to METAL.
Best NOT to Store Feed in a Metal Container, unless it is Lined with
a HEAVY Plastic Bag.. or Kept in the Original Paper Feed Bag.

Swan Lead Zinc
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Galvanized Feed Container WILL Contaminate Feed with LEAD and ZINC.

Galvanized Feeders
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

*********************************************************

Keep ANY Small Metal Items Picked-Up.
Swans, like other Waterfowl, will Ingest Small Stones for their Gizzards.
If they Ingest a Screw, Nut, Nail, Piece of Wire, a Coin, Soda Can Tab, Bread Twist Tie, etc.
This may become a Fatal Snack.   Ingested Metal Litter is Called “Hardware Disease.”
“Kate” looked Healthy… Died Suddenly within a Week of this Photo.
Her Necropsy Found a Small Piece of Iron in her Gizzard.

Swan Metal Poisoning
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

The Metal Items will STAY in their Gizzard and Slowly Dissolve.
Your Swan will become Heavy Metal Toxic..
Destroying their Liver and other Organs.
Heavy Metal Poisoning is VERY Difficult to Treat.

Sharp Metal or Glass can CUT into the Gizzard.. > > > Bleeding or Infection.

Watch for Non-Edible Things in the Water.. Basic Trash..
  I Dropped a Rubber Glove in the Pond..  “Meadow” started to PLAY with it.
I SAW what had Happened..  And, QUICKLY.. Grabbed the Glove.. SIGH !!

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

A Garden Cultivator is a VERY Handy – Pond Tool…

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans 
Garden Cultivator

****************************************************

Use Clean Dedicated Polyvinyl Containers for Feed Safety.

Vinyl Feed Bucket
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

The Metal Pan below is NOT Safe as a Food Container for Poultry and Waterfowl.
The Metal will Slowly Dissolve into the Water.. Heavy Metal Toxic.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans
Heavy Metal Pan

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Every Pond-Lake Situation is Different.
Feeding your Swans can be a Challenge. Brain Storm.

If you have a Canada Goose Problem. They will Raid the Feed.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans
Canada Goose

Large Numbers of Ducks or Geese will Overwhelm a Swan which is Naturally a “Grazer.”
The Ducks and Canada Geese are “Gobblers.”

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans
Canada Geese

Place Food Items in Water Close to the Water’s Edge… not Deeper then they can Reach..
Grain or Seed (or any Food) should Not be Left on the Bank where it can Deteriorate and
Decay, this Rotting Material can Sicken your Waterfowl.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Only put in the Shallow Water what you Expect the Swans will Eat..
Feed or Grain left laying in Water can Spoil and cause Dangerous Bacteria to Grow.

A few Ducks can be Helpful as the Clean-up Crew for Feed Spillage.

Ducks Clean-up
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Fixed Feeders like the Aut-O-Dine have some Draw-Backs and some Advantages.

Swan Feeder – Aut-O-Dine 25
https://swanlovers.net/category/swan-feeder-aut-o-dine-25/

Most Cygnets and Swans Learn to Use the Aut-O-Dine..
Positioned Properly most Canada Geese can NOT Reach the Feed….

Feeding Captive Swans
Aut-O-Dine for Swans

If the Pond Water Level Drops, it will be difficult for the Swans to Reach-in.
OR if the Water Level Rises, the Pesky Geese will Enjoy a Feast.

Swan Aut-O-Dine Feeder
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

One EASY FEED STATION is to use an Old Tire.
(Pick a Nicer One)  AND a Clean Five Gallon Bucket.
(Take the Handle Off – Tangle Hazard.)

Tire Bucket Feeder
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Angle the Bucket as Needed for the Swans to Eat from.
There is a Good Chance the Geese and Ducks will not be able to Reach into the Bucket.
Some Clever Ducks may Jump-in and out.

Tire Bucket Feeder
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

The Bucket is Easy to Clean.. and it can be Taken in at Night.
And can be MOVED as the Water Level Changes.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

ONLY Feed Swans by your Pond.
Put Feed out in Early AM…. have Available during the Day.
Normally Swans Graze from SunRise to SunSet.

They Float Quietly out in the Water at Night.. Trying NOT to be Noticed.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Removing Feed Container at SunSet Discourages Predators.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Feed-Corn Attracts Mice, Shrews, Moles, Voles, Rats, Muskrats,
Squirrels, Rabbits, Woodchucks, Opossums, Deer, Raccoons.

All these Rodents May be Carrying Dangerous Diseases/Parasites.
As they Raid a Feed Container,
they Contaminate the Feed with Saliva, Urine and Poop.

There are some Nasty Diseases Carried by Raccoons.
You do not want them “Pooping” where Children will be Playing.

Mouser Barn Kittens 
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

It is Environmentally UnSafe to Put Swan Feed on the Ground.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

The Smaller Rodents will Attract the Carnivores
– Fox, Coyotes, Coywolves, Roaming Feral Cats, Bobcats.

Depending on your Location maybe a Bear would be attracted to a Feed Container.

Feed and/or Small Rodents may attract Skunks, Weasels,
Mink and Larger Predators like Fox, Lynx, Coyote/Coywolves.
These may take the small Ducklings, Goslings and Cygnets.
Adult Swans become more Vulnerable to Predators.

Have Feed Mixture Available during Day Light Hours Only.

Cover Feed and/or take Inside Over Night.

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Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans
Canada Geese

There are Ways to Discourage Geese.. a Few Ducks are Good for Clean-up.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans
Canada Geese

An Aut-O-Dine Feeding Box for Swans – Polyvinyl.
Positioned just out of Reach, Canada Geese can NOT Feed from this Feeder.

Aut-O-Dine for Swans
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Average Cost of the Feeders Varies Year to Year
Out in the Elements these will Need to be Replaced after several Years of Exposure.
They Need a Stable Post to be Mounted on..
These Need Several Modification to Work for Swans.

SWAN FEEDER – Aut-O-Dine 25
https://swanlovers.net/category/swan-feeder-aut-o-dine-25/

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***DO NOT FEED THE SWANS ANY FEED
with “GROWER” or “FINISHER” in the name.
***DO NOT FEED THE SWANS “Game Bird Feed”

Game Bird Feed is for Bird Raised to Shot and Eat.
Wild Duck, Pheasants, Geese.. Game Birds..

The Lysine Levels are TOO HIGH… 
These Feeds are Designed to Increase the Muscle Tissue
and are for Poultry/Fowl headed to someone’s Dinner Table.
These Feeds DAMAGE Internal Organs, Shortening the Natural Life Span of a Swan.
Many Birds fed these Products will Die in 12-36 months.

The Unnatural Increased Muscle Tissue will add Stress to the Swan’s Legs and Feet.
This will Increase the Risk of Painful “Bumble” Foot Sores.
The Swans may look BIG and HEALTHY.. but, they are not.

***UnCaring or UnKnowing Breeders may Feed these “Grower” Feeds…
Without Regards to the Long Term Health of the Swans.
They just want their Cygnets to Grow Fast,
Look BIG and Healthy when they Sell the Young Swan Cygnets.
Sadly, the Damage is Done. Many only Live a Few Years.

At One Pond we Visited, the Swan was being fed Floating Fish Pellets.
The Protein Level in Fish Pellets is 30-40% – WAY TOO HIGH ! !
She Died soon After Turning 4 Years Old.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans
Swan Fish Pellets
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans
Female Swan Died
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

When you Acquire a New Swan ASK the Previous Owner/Breeder
what they have been Feeding the Swan/Cygnet.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

SCRATCH GRAIN IS NOT A COMPLETE DIET.

Scratch is Small Pieces.. It is Cracked Corn and Cracked Wheat.
By Cracking these Grains.. it is Easier for Young Birds and Chicken to Digest..

A Few Brands will Add Barley.. which Sinks like a Stone into the Mud..
It is Not Practical for Feeding by the Pond..

Two Grain Scratch
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Cracked Corn and Scratch are Difficult for Adult Swans to Eat..
They Loss about Half of it Trying to Swallow these Little Pieces..

We Stop Mixing Scratch into the Feed Mix of Cygnets by about 10-12 Weeks Old..
Mixing in Whole Corn which is SO Much Easier for Swans to Eat..

It this More Cost Effective to STOP Cracked Corn and Scratch for these LARGE Birds.

******************************************

I have Come Across a Few People who have Tried to Find a Lower Protein Food…
The Protein might be Lower, BUT they are NOT Appropriate for Waterfowl/Swans.

Rabbit Pellets are for Rabbits ! !

Horse Feed is for Horses !!  NOT for WaterFowl.
Some Horse Feeds are Lower in Protein.
And they are TOO Low in Calories to Fiber Ratio.
Swans will Starve when Fed Horse Feed.

Swan Horse Feed
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

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THE FOLLOWING FEED MIX IS FOR Swans and Cygnets
at least 4-6 Months Old or Older.
********************
THERE IS NO COMMERCIAL BAG FEED in the United States 
that is Formulated for Swans.
You need to Mix for a Healthy Swan Diet.

THERE ARE REASONABLY SAFE BAG FEEDs
They will Need to be Mixed with Corn for Daily Use.

*** Always ask for “NON-MEDICATED /UNTREATED”
Commercial Feed & Corn   Very Important.
****************

MAZURI MAINTENANCE is a REASONABLY SAFE BAG FEED Mixed with Corn.
Currently Available Across the Country.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Keep the Lysine Level at 1.00% or Less.

FEED MAZURI Maintenance
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Chewy.com is a Great Way to Order and have Many Feed Products Delivered.
. . . with Orders of at Least $50.00 these will be Delivered Free.

This Saves Time and Gas.. Thanks Chewy !

Feeding Captive Swans

*** The Commercial Feed Mix we use is:   
NON-Medicated – Mazuri Floating Waterfowl Maintenance Pellets.
Mixed 40% Pellets with 60% Whole Shell Corn.

The Mazuri Formulation provides Vitamins, Minerals, Trace Elements, Etc.

Lysine Feed
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

MAZURI Waterfowl Pellets Float for Several Hours.. Great for Grazing.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

*** CORN is not a Complete Diet… It is a Supplement.

Commercial Bag Corn
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

AVIAN INFANTICIDE:
I have been Asking many of the Folks in my Swan Network what they are Feeding their Swans..
Over the Years, I Noticed a Common Fact… with 6-7 Pair of Breeding Swans.

The Swans that were Only Fed Cracked or Whole Corn during the Winter Months
were the Swans who were Killing their Tiny Cygnets. Equally the Dams and Sires.
Once the Diet was Improved the Next Nesting Season they did not Kill their Cygnets..

My Data Samples are TOO Small to be a Definite Correlation..
But, it is VERY Suggestive that the Poor Nutrient Diet is Related..

***********************************************

The Following can be added as a Treat: About 10%
Scratch Mixes – Cracked Corn, Wheat, Barley, Crimped Oats, Alfalfa, Rye Grass Seed.
Best Used is in a Shallow Pan of Water.. So the Swans can Suck-up these Small Pieces.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Whole Oats are Better for Horses..

Crimped Oats are made by taking Whole Oats and Partially Flattening them,
Damaging the Husk and making them Slightly Easier to Consume and Digest.

Feeding Captive Swans
Crimped Oats

Rolled Oats have been Completely Flattened and are Considered Easier to Digest.

Chickens, Ducks, Geese and Swans LOVE Crimped Oats.

( Adding a little Crimped Oats is a Floating Treat. )

I have Started to Add a Small Amount of Crimped Oats to the Corn tossed into the Water.
Some of it Floats and is Nice for the Swans to Graze.
This is Not Practical where a Current just Carries the Oats Away.

Crimped Oats Float
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

*************************************************

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

One Family Likes this “Feather Fixer” Feed.. Mixed with Corn to Lower the Protein.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

FOR Young Cygnets – NON-Medicated Start & Grow.
>>>>> ( OR Crumble – Specialty Poultry Feed) – NON-Medicated.

Cygnet START N Grow
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

*************************************

DO NOT FEED “CHICK STARTER” TO SWAN CYGNETs.
These Feeds Contain an Additive that will cause Chronic Diarrhea, Malabsorption
and the Death of many of the Cygnets.
This is Formulated to help Poultry Chicks deal with Coccidiosis.

Amprolium IS NOT an Antibiotic.
It is a Coccidia Preventitive for Chicks for their First 7-10 Days..

When Coccidia Parasites Ingest Amprolium, they Experience Thiamin Deficiency
and Starve from Malnutrition, it ALSO Causes Thiamine Deficiency in the Cygnets.
Thiamine Turns Food into Energy to Keep the Nervous System Healthy.
Tiny Cygnets are GROWING Very Fast..
Cygnets NEED to be Able to Absorb all Healthy Nutrients.

Cygnet START N Grow
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans Cygnets

**************************************

*** FOR SWANs and CYGNETs over 4-6 Months Old.
*** MIX Bag Feed so the Protein % is between 6-8%

60%       Whole Dry Shell Corn
40%      18% Waterfowl Floating Pellets
> > > ( OR 40% All Grain Poultry Feed Maintainer – Extrude).

Whichever you Choose – Mix to the Protein Level of ** 6-8% **

Feed Mix for Swans
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

The Protein Percentage of U.S. Poultry Feed is TOO HIGH for SWANs.

Duck, Geese, Turkeys all Tolerate Protein Levels Up to 15-20%
***Swans Average Daily Protein should NOT Exceed 6-8%.

Adjust the Feed Mix by Mixing Whole Dry Shell Corn or Scratch Mix for Young Cygnets.
Adding Lots of Vegetable-Plant Material Helps to Keep the Daily Protein Level Down.
Lettuce, Romaine, Dark Green Leaf Lettuce, Spinach, Cabbage (shredded), Chinese Cabbage,
Cucumbers, Kale, Shredded Carrots for Vitamin A, Chopped Radishes, Apples.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans  Vegetables

Young Swan Cygnets may Develop Tendon Slippage of the Carpal ( Wrist ) Joint
from a High Protein Diet.  This May Result in “Angel Wing” Deformity.

SWAN Angel Wing Deformity
https://swanlovers.net/category/swan-angel-wing-deformity/

Swan Angel Wing 
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

A High Protein Diet will cause a Fatty Liver- Lipidosis to Develop.
May Damage the Swan’s Liver, Spleen, Kidneys, which will Eventually be Fatal.

Most Extruded Poultry Feeds Dissolve Sitting in Water.
It is More Efficient when Using these Products
to Place the Mixture in a Container/Bowl.

Bowl For Swan Feed
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Chickens and Swans are Poultry..
Chicken Poultry Feed is OK if Mixed with Whole Corn..

If Choosing POULTRY FEEDs >>>> MAINTENANCE
NO GROWERs – NO Finishers.. SWANs are Pets > NOT to Eat..

Welcome to Poultry DVM’s Feed Comparison Tool
Compare Nutrients of Different Poultry Feeds or Search for Specific Ingredients.
http://www.poultrydvm.com/feeds.php

Captive Black Australian Swans
Feeding Swans

**************************************************

Any Feed put out for Swans should be Checked and Changed Daily.

SWAN FRESH Daily Poultry Feeds
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

In the Summer Extrude Feed Spoils Very Easily if it Gets Wet.
Spoiled/Soured Feed Can Make a Swan VERY Sick.

Rainy Day Corn
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

If it is Going to Rain… We only put Whole Corn out.
In Cold Weather Spoiling is not as much a Problem.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Around Mid-January Consider Starting Feed Formulated for Egg Layers.
Mix a Cup into the Daily Feed Mixture Ration.

I Save my Hard Boiled Egg Shells.. and Crush them.
I Add a Teaspoon to a Gallon of Feed Mix.

Crushed Boiled Egg Shells
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

When I see White Calcium in their Poop, I know I have Added Enough.

SWAN POOP Excreted Calcium
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

Swan Poop Tells its own Story. Learn what Normal Swan Poop Looks like.
It varies GREATLY with their Diet.
Occasionally, look for Any Signs of Parasite.  Things that Wiggle !!
Watch for Persistent Wet Sloppy Waste – Diarrhea.  ???
There are MANY Possibilities.

Check with your Avian Veterinarian at Least Once a Year.
See if they will do a Stool Work-up for Ova & Parasites.
Sample needs to be Fresh. Their Lab will give you Instructions.

Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

*************************************************************************

Swans are Very Messy, Wasteful Eaters.
The Mazuri Floating Waterfowl Pellets have Less Waste.

*****************************************************

Swans NEED 30% More Food during Cold Weather Months.
If there is a Small Amount Left after 24 Hours,
or at End of the Day they are Getting Enough.

Feeding Winter Swans
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

***********************************************************************

Diet.. It is Helpful for Swans to have a Little Oil in their Diet..
Especially during the Winter Months.
Adding a Tablespoon of Salad Oil to their Daily Feed Mixture may be Helpful..

*************************************************************

Blackstrap Molasses is the most Concentrated Form of Molasses.
It Contains the most Vitamins and Assorted Minerals.
Some Sources say that it has many Health Benefits.

****************************************************

If your Swans Need Extra Vitamins to Improve their Healthy..

Gimbon Vionate – is a Vitamin Powder….
Needs to be used with a Dry Feed Mix… Not to give in Water.
To help this Powder Stick to the Feed.. Mix a little OIL or King Syrup
for the Vitamin Powder to Stick to…

***********************************************************************

This Information is a Work in Progress…..
As I learn more I will add to this information..
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Compiled & Revised by (C) L.M.Sweger           .. NOVEMBER  2022

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Feeding Captive Swans

Now After ALL That…. Sit Back and Enjoy your Healthy Swans.

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50 Pounds – Mazuri Waterfowl Maintenance Averages $ 40-50.00
Mazuri Waterfowl Feed has been Popular with Swan Keepers for many Years.

Mazuri Waterfowl Feed


50 Pounds – Poultry Maintainer ( UnMedicated )

Feeds for Swans


Average ( Guesstimate ) Annual Usage of Commercial Feed for Two Adult Mute Swans
if they Graze off a Natural Summer Pond and Lush Green Grass.

1 – Bag of Poultry Maintainer
2 – Bags of Waterfowl Floating Pellets
1 – Bag of Scratch – Two Grain
1 – Bag of Crimped Oats
3 – Bags of Whole Shell Corn
*********************************************
Addition Expenses if there are Cygnets in the Spring.
1-2 25 Pound Bags of Start-n-Grow for Cygnets
OR
1 – 50 Pound Bag of Crumble for the Cygnets

Chewy.com is a Great Way to Order and have Many Feed Products Delivered.
. . . with Orders of at Least $50.00.

This Saves Time and Gas.. Thanks Chewy !

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Healthy Pinioned Cygnets 6-10 Months Old can be SOLD/ADOPTED for:
$100.00 to $150.00 to $200.00 to 300.00 to $350.00
Depends on Age – the Number and Sex Available for Sale.

Feeding Captive Swans

Just for Fun… I Tried to Mathematically Calculate the Amount of Feed for a Healthy Adult Swan.

Birds/Waterfowl should Eat about 25-30 Grams Feed Mix / Kg Body Weight each Day.

Conversion Tables: Kilograms to Pounds..
https://www.metric-conversions.org/weight/kilograms-to-pounds.htm

Conversion Tables: Kilograms/Grams to Pounds.
https://www.metric-conversions.org/weight/grams-to-kilograms.htm

EXAMPLE: (ONE) 1 SWAN Weighing appx.. 25 Pounds. ( a Healthy Pen )
(ONE) 1 Pound = 2.3 Kilograms
2.3 KG X 25 Pounds = 58 Kilograms.
58 Kilograms X 30 Grams Feed Mix = 1740 Grams.
1740 Grams Feed Mix = 1.75 Quarts of Feed..
1.75 Quarts of Feed = A Little less then 4 Pounds Feed Mix /Day.

It is Easier to Start with a Little Too Much Feed – Food..
Then Change the Daily Ration Until there is Just a Little Left at the End of the Day.

SWANLovers Info
Captive Mute Swans
Feeding Swans

I Found this List of Food Items to TOTALLY AVOID !

Feeding Captive Swans
Feeding Captive Swans
Feeding Captive Swans
Feeding Captive Swans
Feeding Captive Swans

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Mute Swans Mating

January 20th, 2015 | Posted by LadyNerkle1 in Mute Swans Mating - (Comments Off on Mute Swans Mating)

Mute Swans Mating

The Beautiful Mating Ballet of Swans 

Mute Swans Mating

Mute Swans Courting

January 20th, 2015 | Posted by LadyNerkle1 in Mute Swans Courting - (Comments Off on Mute Swans Courting)

Mute Swans Courting 

The Sweet Displays of Mute Swan Affection.

Mute Swans Courting

In LATE FALL Mute Swans begin to “COURT”

Mute Swans Courting

Click to Enlarge Images

Mute Swans Courting

 

Mute Swans Courting

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Determine the Sex of Swans by DNA

January 20th, 2015 | Posted by LadyNerkle1 in Determine the Sex of Swans-Cygnets by DNA - (Comments Off on Determine the Sex of Swans by DNA)

Whether you are Looking for a Swan to Replace One you have Lost,
Selling Swans or Cygnets to ReHome them,
IT IS IMPORTANT TO KNOW THE SEX OF ALL These SWANS.

Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Determining the Sex of Swans by DNA

This UK WebSite has a Very Nice Explanation of DNA Testing.
https://bento.bio/protocol/bird-sexing/

BENTO FEATHER DNA Testing

In September 2022..
I did a Search and Found there are Three USA Laboratories
that do Avian/Bird DNA Sex Testing.. Info Below.

Click on Image to Enlarge.

Before you Pinion a Tiny Cygnet:
It would be Great if you Could Determine the Sex.
Vent Check if You know what to look for.

Tiny Mute Swan Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

If you know a Person who knows how to Vent Check.. ASK for Help.

Sex Determination for Swans

*************************

Vent Sexing Cygnets is not 100% Accurate.
If you find Male Parts/the tiny Penis.. Then you have a Male.. Pinion the Left Wing.

If you can NOT Find the Penis.. that does not mean you have a Female.
For 29 + Years, Everyone THOUGHT “Princess” was a Female.
SURPRISE: At 30 Years Old.. “Prince” formerly “Princess”
> > and “Victoria” have SEVEN Tiny Cygnets on their Pond..

Mute Swan Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

It is Tricky to Find the Tiny Penis in Cygnets.. it might be Missed.
During the First 10 Days after Hatching,
It is Suggested that the Penis is Larger due to the Cygnet’s Elevated Hormones.

Mute Swan Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

  General Visual Appearance is NOT Dependable.
 They Look Alike ! !

Female Mute Swans
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

All Cygnets that might be Female (Maybe Male) should be DNA Checked…

At least Pinion the Right Wing.
BETTER to Pinion a Wing when they are Tiny then NOT.

Swan DNA Sex Testing


Pinioning is Permanent
https://swanlovers.net/category/pinioning-is-permanent/

OR
ASK SOMEONE who KNOWs How to PINION Safely. 

TO Pinion an Older Cygnet or Adult Swan is Time Consuming
and Hard on the Swan and their Owners.  
It is Only Safely Done by an Avian Veterinarian
who is > Willing < to Preforms this Procedure.

Surgical Pinion Swan
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

As I Interact with more Swan Folks across the Country,
I am hearing More and More People are Learning their Veterinarians are NOT Willing.
They will NOT Pinion.. ONLY Clip.. They Express they have an Ethical Issue to Pinion.
SO, Start Early to CALL Avian Veterinarians, so you Know what your Options are.

Mute Swan Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

It is VERY Helpful to know when the Cygnets Hatched. Note that Date !
Then you will Know how Old they are.
Swan Cygnets LESS then 10-14 Days Old have ONE Tiny Capillary, 
ONE Tiny Nerve and Soft Cartilage in the Distal Wing Tip.  
Pinioning at this Time is the Safest for the Cygnets.

Young Swan Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

It is Easier to Handle the Cygnets when they are Around 10 to 21 Days Old.. Not So Tiny.
Sometimes Catching the Cygnets does not Happen when we Want.. Expect a Delay.
I have Used this Method of Pinioning Safely UP to 21 Days.. NO Problems.
Check there is NO Bone Forming in Wing Tip.  If Bone is Forming you will FEEL it.
KNOW How Old the Cygnets ARE !!

Mute Swan Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

THE MOST IMPORTANT is PINION When
YOU have the Opportunity and >>>> have Help.

Mute Swan Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing


ID Banding for Swans
> > Bands for Cygnets and Mature Swans.
https://swanlovers.net/category/id-banding-for-swans/

DNA Swan Cygnet
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Be Sure to USE some Method of Keeping Track of which Cygnet is which. 
And which Brood they have Come from
> > > If you are Removing Multiple Cygnets to Hand-Raise.

Mute Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Avian BioTech is the Former Name of the Current Animal Genetics Laboratory.

Mute Swan Cygnets DNA
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

The Rescued Hand Raised Cygnets in this Image are from THREE Different Broods. 
We Could Arrange Unrelated Pairs from these Young Rescued Swans.
Change ID Bands as they Grow.. They Grow FAST !

Mute Swan Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

The Color of a Cygnets will NOT Determine their Sex..
These are Royal Male and Female Cygnets/Swans.
These are Polish Male and Female Cygnets/Swans.
From Three Different Sets of Parents.

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THE TINY WING TIPs REMOVED
WHEN YOU PINION
Cygnets can be Sent for DNA-Sex Testing.
Allow these to AIR DRY Completely before Submitting.

Check the Website of Any DNA Testing Service you Select
for their Instructions..  

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From a Gazette – Direct from WEBSITE:
Discussion of Sexing Birds by Vent Checking


The best thing is to get another Breeder who is an Expert at Vent Sexing
to help you and supervise you until you’ve picked up the knack of it.

Most Ducks are very easy to Sex while the Geese and Swans resist you more,
that is tighten their Vent Muscles so that it is most difficult to invert
their Cloacal Region so their Inner Sex Parts come into plain view.


Perhaps the best time to Sex any Water-Fowl is when they are a week
or two old, and some say best results are achieved at just 3-4 days old.

Experience indicates that Vent Sexing is best done
in the Spring on Adult Birds, when the Sex Organs are beginning to swell.

At this time of year the gentle manual manipulation of a Male’s Vent
will cause sensitive twitching and reflex movement.
This does not occur when handling Female Water Fowl
and is a good indicator of Sex in my judgement,
but as mentioned before, an Expert can apply the right amount
of pressure and easily cause the Vent to invert itself and
expose the Inner Sex Parts so that there is no doubt as to Sex.

Check the drawings that illustrate Vent Sexing in various publications
so you know what to look for, and the Penis on a Male will stick out
especially when the right manipulation of the anal region is applied,
so there is really no guess work involved when done right.

Also, before doing Vent Sexing for the first time, it is my recommendation 
that you first consult with and receive instruction from an Avian Veterinarian.

End of Quote from Gazette Article 
( This Article has been Removed from the Internet.)
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I WISH I had found someone who could do the above Vent Sexing Method. 
But, “Woe is me”… TOO Many Mistakes OCCURRED ! !
Even with Years of Experience, WE DO NOT Guess – We DNA-Check their Sex.

I have read that Vent Checking can Result in Injury to the Cloaca Sphincter.
 It would be Easy to Scratch the Tiny Sphincter trying to Manipulate it.

Mute Swan Cygnet
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

SO…. I prefer to Spare the Cygnets/Swans and do the DNA-Sex Testing.

***************************************

Vent Sexing Swans/Cygnets is NOT Fool-Proof.. A Percentage will be WRONG..
If you Find Male Parts – Penis – Great ! . . But, if you do not find the Tiny Penis,
–                         . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  You can not be sure you have a Female.

If you Introduce a Second Male by Mis-Sexing a Cygnet/Swan….
View the Video Link Below…  This is NOT a Swan Ballet.

https://www.thestar.com/news/insight/2013/04/12/a_silent_ballet_for_mute_swans_at_humber_bay.html

MATURE MALE SWANs FIGHTING
Swans DNA-Sex Testing
Male Mute Swans
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Two Unrelated Mute or Trumpeter Cobs
will NOT Tolerate Sharing the Same Territory.

*******************************************************
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*******************************************************

Ducks have a Real Penis… Swans NOT so…
Male Swans DO NOT have a Penetrating Penis.

Duckling
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Ballistic Penises and Corkscrew Vaginas – The Sexual Battles of Ducks
http://scienceblogs.com/notrocketscience/2009/12/22/ballistic-penises-and-corkscrew-vaginas-the-sexual-battles/

Mature Male Mute Swan
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Swans are NOT Similar to Ducks or Geese.
Male Swans DO NOT have a Penetrating Sex Organ.
The Size of their Structure which Transfers Serum is affected
by the Current Hormone Level in the Male Swan’s System.
*************************************
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Over the Years I have talked with Some Folks who Suggest Comparing
a Swan or Cygnet’s Size, Vocal Pitch, Behavior will help them Identity
the Males and Females. – All Subjective.

Mute Swan Cygnet
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

This was One Time we Guessed Correctly.
Then we DID the DNA to be Sure.

Mature Mute Swans
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

The Knob of both Male and Female Mutes Changes through the Year
as the Swan’s Hormones Increase/Decease Annually..

Female Mute Swan Knob
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

The Same Female Mute Swan Before Nesting & After Nesting Season.
Now her Knob is Smaller.

Female Mute Swan Knob
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

The Knob on a Mute Swan will Change as their Weight Changes.
Healthy Swans tend to have Larger Full Knobs.

Mute Swan Knob
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Underweight Swans have Smaller – Even Flat Knobs.

Underweight Mute Swan
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

I do KNOW if a Swan Lays an Egg… that is a Female..
A Healthy Female Swan needs to be at least 2 to 3 Years Old before she will lay an Egg.
With each Passing Year, I learn of more and more Female Swans that NEVER Lay Eggs.
Their DNA Tests are FEMALE.. But, NO Eggs.. > > Puzzling !
I have asked Avian Specialists for a Reason.. None have Provided an Explanation. 

Female Mute Nesting
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

I know of any number of Situations where a Pond had two Males or two Females..
NOT a Female / Male Breeding Pair.
The Swan Owners were Frustrated there were NO Cygnets..

Young Female Swans
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

There were Never any Cygnets – But there were EGGs that Never Hatched.
These were Two Females that were Purchases as a Breeding Pair. OOPs.

*************************************************
If you are interested… I will share more OOPs Anecdotes at the End of this Page.
Stories of Mis-Sexed Swans.. There are MORE with each Passing Year.

Same Sex Male Swans
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

The Above Image – Turned out to be TWO Males.

Mute Swans
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

This Pair of Swans above did not Mate…
Just Fussed with Each Other. Lots of Chasing.
NO Eggs after Four Spring Seasons – Strange Nesting Behavior..
Yep ! ! TWO MALES !

*************************************************
**************************************************
THE MOST RELIABLE WAY TO DETERMINE A SWAN’s SEX
is by DNA-Sex Testing.

There are Several Types of Samples that may be Submitted for Testing.

These are Examples of FEATHERs.

Feathers For DNA
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Each Type of Sample needs to be Handled Properly to Protect the Sample’s Integrity.
THE MOST Important – BE Sure the Sample Submitted is DRY ! 
A Damp Sample Mailed in the Heat of Summer Months will Develop MOLD.

Mute Swan Cygnet
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Very Young Cygnets do not have True Feathers and can not be Feather DNA-Sex Tested.
Fuzzy Down is not Acceptable for DNA Testing.

True Feathers will Start Emerging around Eight Weeks.
Too Late for you to Know their Sex when you Tie and Cut Pinion Yourself…

True Swan Feathers
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

It is BETTER to Pinion when they are Tiny
With or Without Knowing their Sex.

Try to Pinion FEMALEs on RIGHT WING Tip – the Distal Wing Section.
**** ONE WING ONLY ****
Pinion MALEs on LEFT WING Tip – the Distal Wing Section.
**** ONE WING ONLY ****

Pinioned Mute Swan
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

THERE IS NO NEED to Pinion Both Wings.
The Goal is to Keep the Swans OFF Balance.

*************************************
If you are VERY LUCKY.. All your Cygnets will Survive..
That is Generally not the Case when Cygnets are Raised
Out on a Pond or Lake with their Parents.

Mute Swan Family
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

These Royal Mute Swans above had Six Cygnets Hatch.  Now there are just Three.
A Red-tailed Hawk was Swooping down every Third Day and Snatching a Cygnet. 

Predators will Claim many Tiny Fuzzy Cygnets.

Great Blue Heron
Swans DNA-Sex Testing


The most Common – Red-tailed Hawks, Snapping Turtles, Owls, Great Blue Herons.
Feral Cats, Fox, Dogs > People – Kids.

Polish Mute Swans
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

From Experience, there is a Wisdom in Collecting a Sample if you have a Chance.
Identify the Cygnets/Swans and ID the Samples well.
Store as the Avian Diagnostic Lab. Instructs.. and Wait until the Cygnets
are about 3-4 Months Old to Send the Samples for Testing.
  ( 12 – 14 Weeks Old.) 
NO Point having Results for Cygnets that have Not Survived.

The Polish Swan Family below Started with Six Cygnets, now just Three.

Polish Mute Swans
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

The Cygnets above are Still in the Downy Stage.. NO True Feathers. 

Mute Swans
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

In the Above Image – the Pen is on the Left – the Cob is on the Right. Honest.

I WISH this was more Straight Forward..
but, Determining the Sex of Cygnets and Swans is a Challenge.

*************************************
WEEKS Before your Cygnets are Scheduled to Hatch.

Once the (Pen) Female Starts to “Sit” Full Time, Mark your Calendar
and Count 35 – *37 Days.  
On Day 35 you might be able to hear the Tiny Cygnets in the Shell “Pipping.”
 If all goes as Planned they will Start to Hatch on Day *37.  YEAH !!!

Nesting Female Mute Swan
Swans DNA-Sex Testing


>>>> Collect Your Supplies so you are READY.
Check with Family or Friend – who will be willing to Help ? ?
EXTRA Hands are Important. HAVE A PLAN !

READ the WEBSITEs for the AVIAN DNA Testing Lab that you Select.
I have Spoken with these Labs.. Most Swan Samples Submitted are Feathers.

The Majority of Avian DNA Samples for Swan Cygnets
are Collected from June through September.
During the WARM-HOT Weather Months.
With the U.S Mail being Slower then in Years Past,
it is Important to GET your Samples to a Testing Lab ASAP.
I Hear various Swan Folks Sending by Special Mail..
Adding to the Overall Expense..
General First Class Mail is Workable..if the Samples are Dry.

THE MOST IMPORTANT THING.. is that the SAMPLE be DRY.
DO NOT Submit Wet-Damp Feathers, etc. Air DRY First.

Over Time BEST Practices for Submitting Samples are Refined.
I Suggest you Read the Appropriate Instructions in these WebSites.

I Checked the Best I could for a DNA Testing Service Closer to PA.
I have No Experience with Two of the Testing Labs that Follow.
I Appreciate Learning of your Experiences and Review of these Labs. 

Their WebSites have Menu Pages with Instructions and Tips.

All these Avian-Bird Testing Laboratories have
Collection Kits Upon Request. OR How to Make Your Own.

When a Wet or Damp DNA Sample is confined in Plastic it can
become Moldy and the Sample QUICKLY becomes Degraded.
Degraded Samples CANNOT be tested.
The Labs will Request a New Samples. SEND DRY Samples.

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Avian DNA Gender Determination ( bird sexing )
is a Non-Surgical and DNA-Powered Method used by Veterinarians,
Breeders, and Bird Owners who CANNOT determine the Gender
of their Bird by its Physical Appearance or Characteristics.

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>>>> Animal Genetic International    ( FLORIDA )
  This is the Lab I am most Familiar with..
Their Information Follows the Notes for Other Potential Labs.  

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>>>> DDC DNA Diagnostics Center      ( OHIO )
https://dnacenter.com/testing-pets-vets/bird-dna-testing/
DNA Technology Park
1 DDC Way Fairfield, OH 45014 ( USA )
1 (800) 625-0874 contact@vetdnacenter.com

How do I Know if my Bird is Male or Female?
Bird DNA Testing is the Easiest and most Accurate way
to Determine whether your Birds are Male or Female.

The Process is Simple:
( Once you have Hold of your Cygnet or Swan.)
Order a DNA-Collection Kit from us
( included in the Price of Testing )

OR Make your own Kit at Home, and then send the Samples.
DDC Accepts Feather & Blood Samples for Swans.
I Spoke with Staff who Said Most Submit Feather Samples.

Once Samples are Received, your Results are Emailed
to you within 5 Business Days.
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I know One Swan Person who Used this Lab.. 

>>>> IQ Genetics LLC IQ Bird Testing    ( FLORIDA )
https://orders.iqbirdtesting.com/
E-mail: info@iqbirdtesting.com
4391 SW 74th Ave Miami, Florida 33155 ( USA )
Phone: 1 ( 833 ) BIRD DNA ( Call or text )
FAX: 1 ( 305 ) 592-4540

With Feather and Eggshell Specimen, we can only Process DNA Sexing.
With Blood Specimen, we can do Sexing and Diseases.

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There are Other BIRD DNA Testing Service.. in Canada & the U.K.

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EMail >>>> ANY Questions with the Animal Genetics Testing Lab.
This Lab only Communicates by EMail.. 

EMails are Addressed during Office Hours
–                (9:00 AM EST to 5:00 PM EST) Monday through Friday.
Due to High Volume of EMail allow up to 5 Business Days for a Response to your Message.

Especially, if this is your First Time to Collect DNA Samples.
Become Informed of ALL Your Options:
> > > You ONLY Need to Submit One Type of Sample.

SAMPLE OPTIONS: –  * Feathers – Blood Dots – Cygnet Wing Tips – Others.

Order or Request Animal Genetics Send you a Dozen Collection Kits.

SWAN DNA-Test Kits
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Complimentary testing kits can be requested at the links below:

Bird: http://animalgenetics.us/Avian/avian-kit-order-form.asp


OR Make you own Sample Kits.
Clean ZipLoc Bags.. For Feather Samples.

SWAN DNA-Test Kits
Swans DNA-Sex Testing
SWAN DNA-Test Kits
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Clean White Paper Towel Squares Prepared for a Drop of Fresh Blood.
Draw a 1/2 Circle to fill with a Drop of Blood. DO NOT TOUCH SAMPLE CIRCLE !

When you Pinion a Cygnet, there may be a Drop of Fresh Blood in Removed Tip.

Animal Genetics Main Office in the U.S.A.
https://www.animalgenetics.us/

Animal Genetic International
Toll Free: 1-800-514-9672 The Lab is NO Longer Taking Phone Calls
contact@animalgenetics.us   Send Your Questions to this EAddress.
Fax: 1-850-386-1146
Email:  https://www.animalgenetics.us/about-us.php#contactform
1336 Timberlane Road
Tallahassee, FL 32312-1766

AVIAN BIOTECH NEW LOCATION
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

**** MAKE COPY OF SAMPLE SUBMISSION FORM ****
A Printable Submission Form is Available on AnimalGenetic WebSite.
https://www.animalgenetics.us/Forms/Avian%20Bulk%20Form.pdf

***************************************
With Cygnets Older then Eight Weeks..
I Suggest you Pay the Extra $5.00 to have a DNA-Sex Test done with Feathers.
– fee $24.50 (with Postage – $25.00)

Mute Swan Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

INSTRUCTIONS.. for Submitting a Feather Sample.
https://www.animalgenetics.us/Avian/DNA_Sexing/DNA-Sexing-Feather.asp

AnimalGenetics – AVIAN BioTech has Instructions on their WebSite
for Proper Collection of Samples.
Feathers must be Plucked..    Not Picked Up – No Shed or Moulted Feathers.

Moulting Swan
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Various Methods of Avian DNA Sex Testing 
https://www.animalgenetics.us/Avian/DNA_Sexing/DNA-Sexing-Index.asp

AVIAN DNA SEX TESTING by Feather Samples.
https://www.animalgenetics.us/Avian/DNA_Sexing/DNA-Sexing-Feather.asp

  • Mail Samples to:
    3382 Capital Circle NE
    Tallahassee, FL 32308

    &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&  

    A carefully collected Drop of Blood can be sent for DNA – Testing.
    DNA – TESTING from a DROP of BLOOD   ( by a Puncture Wound. )
    https://www.animalgenetics.us/Avian/DNA_Sexing/DNA-Sexing-Blood.asp

  • This would mean a Tiny Spot will have Open Skin Exposed to Dirty Pond Water.
  • Avoid allowing Cygnets to go back in the Pond for 1 -2 hours..
  • BE SURE ANY Bleeding is COMPLETELY STOPPED.
  • ESPECIALLY, if there are Snapping Turtles in their Water.
Wonder Dust
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

ANY Bleeding is to be Cared for and Completely STOPPED.
I have used Clean Corn Starch and Clean White Flour as an Aid to Stop MINOR Bleeding.
WONDER DUST has been Recommended..  This Works Well !!

There is additional Information for Wonder Dust at the Bottom of this Page.

Kwik Stop Styptic Powder
Swans DNA-Sex Testing


Kwik Stop Styptic Powder should be used CAREFULLY as a Last Resort to Stop Bleeding. 
DO NOT Allow Ingestion of Kwik Stop.
The Powder will become Rock Hard and May Adhere to the Esophagus.

Pinioned Mute Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

If you are Able to Pinion your Cygnet when they are NOT so Tiny,
when 10 to 21 Days Old.. You will have a better Chance to Collect a Blood Dot.

If you can Squeeze a Nice Drop of Blood from the Removed Tip of the Wing
when you Pinion, Soak the Blood Drop onto a VERY CLEAN Paper Towel Square.
Do your Best NOT to Touch the Area to be Soaked with a Blood Drop.
Allow to Dry COMPLETELY  
– Check with the Selected Lab for Preferred Mailing Container.

OR Use the Blood Dot Kits Requested from Animal Genetics Inc. 

SWAN DNA-Test Kits
Swans DNA-Sex Testing
Mute Swan Cygnets 
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Label Samples carefully, Refrigerate in a DRY Container.
This can be sent in for their DNA-Sex Test..

******************************************
These Rescued Cygnets are Eight Weeks Old.  NOT Pinioned !

Pinion Mute Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing
Pinion Mute Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing
Pinion Mute Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing
Pinion Mute Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

If you need to take Older Cygnets  (3-12 Weeks Old) to an Avian Veterinarian
to be Surgically Pinioned, you will be able to have the Blood Dot Sample
Collected from the Wing Tips Removed.

Be Prepared with Blood Dot Submission Kits for Each Cygnet
and a way to ID each Cygnet.   ALLOW the Samples to DRY COMPLETELY.
Follow All Post-Op Instruction to Avoid Infections.
YEAH …. A Mixed Brood.

Pinion Mute Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

******************************************

A Blood Dot Sample Fee is $19.50.  (in 2021)
Both Feather and Blood Dot Results take 5-10 days.

I do not like to see Holes Poked in a Swan’s Feet or Legs to Collect a Blood Dot Sample.
This Greatly Increasing the Risk of Painful *Bumble Foot Infections.

Bumble Foot Sore
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Beautiful as they are, Swans Walk, Stand and Swim in POOP.

Swan Standing in Poop
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

DO NOT PUNCTURE their FEET.. The Sores it Causes are TERRIBLE..

Swan Bumble Foot Sore
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Bumble Foot Sores are NO FUN to TREAT !!

*****************************************

The Tiny WING TIP of a Cygnet Pinioned when less then 10-14-21 Days, 
may have a Drop of Blood to Soak onto a Blood Collection Card
– . . . . or onto an Absorbent Paper Towel.

10 Day Old Mute Swan Cygnet
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

I Checked with Animal Genetics..   (October 2014)
The Tiny Wing Tip that is Snipped Off when a Cygnet is Pinioned 
Can be Submitted for the DNA-Sex Testing..  Allow these to DRY COMPLETELY. 
The Wing Tip has an Area of Skin which is Fresh Tissue Acceptable for Testing.

Swan Cygnet DNA Sex Testing
Swans DNA-Sex Testing
Mute Swan Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

IF you have a GOOD Way to Identify each Tiny Cygnet when you Pinion them,
you can put each Wing Tip in a Carefully Labeled > > PAPER ENVELOPE.

Mute Swan Cygnet DNA
Swans DNA-Sex Testing
DNA Submission Form
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Information: DATE – Specimen Collected – Cygnet ID – Your Name

Fill out the Submission Form *Immediately and *Send ASAP
ANIMAL GENETIC, Inc. and Avian BioTech are the Same Laboratory.

Mute Swan Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Since we were Hand Raising the Rescued Cygnets Above,
I Sent Drops of Blood when we Pinioned them.. Squeezed from their Wing Tips.
It is Fun to Know their Sex when they are still Tiny.
******************
OR If you want to Wait to Send the Wing Tips…
   >>>> ALLOW These to DRY COMPLETELY. 

Since Some Cygnets may not Survive the First Several Months,
it is Practical to Send for the DNA-Sex Testing when the Cygnets
are around Three to Four Months Old.  ( 12 – 14 Weeks )

Put EACH Wing TIP in a Separate *PAPER ENVELOPE – NOT PLASTIC

BE SURE YOU KNOW WHICH CYGNET the Wing Tip is From.
ID the Cygnets SOME WAY…

ID Each Separate *PAPER Envelopes.
Place Only One Wing Tip in each *PAPER Envelope with ID INFO.

I Place a Square of Wax Paper between Each Paper Envelope.
-Just in Case a Little DNA Fluid Bleeds through.

DNA WAX Paper
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Put ALL Pinioned Wing Tips in Separate Envelopes together
>>>> ( Separate Envelopes with Wax Paper )
in a Larger PAPER Mailing ENVELOPE.. LABEL. 
Put these in the Freezer. They are Good for One Year.
I Checked this with Animal Genetics  (June 2016)

Check with > > >Animal Genetics for Instructions to Send Frozen Samples.  

At Three to Four Months of Age, you will be able to Send the Ones you Need.

Mute Swan Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

CHECK Handling Instructions for Sending Frozen Samples.
Dry Ice is Often Found at Stores that Specialize in Ice Cream.

Mail ALL Labeled Paper Envelopes Inside a Larger Paper Envelope with Submission Form.

Swan Cygnet DNA Sex Testing
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

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Once the Diagnostic Lab Receives your Sample/Samples you will Receive a Message by EMail..

Then in 3-5 Days the EMail Results will be Ready..
So, allow 8-10 Days for Results..

DNA Sex Test Results
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

A Print-Out and the DNA Sexing Report Certificate will come in the Mail in 2-3 Weeks.

SWAN DNA-Certificate
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Example of the Certificate that Avian BioTech Sends. ( I added the Photo )

This DNA-Sex Test with its Certificate Increases the Sale Value of Swans/Cygnets. 
This information is Very Desirable to Folks looking for Swans/Cygnets. 
NO Guessing the Sex.

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There are other Animal Genetic Labs that do this Testing.
This is the Lab I have used for Years.. 
Original Name * AVIAN BioTech – Avian Services Center *

Now the Laboratory’s Name is:  . . Animal Genetics
https://www.animalgenetics.us/Avian/DNA_Sexing/DNA-Sexing-Index.asp

AVIAN BIOTECH Lab
Animal Genetics Lab
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Over the Years, Animal Genetics have Updated their WebSite..
I have Tried to List all their Current Links.. But, they keep Changing.
Check their WebSite:
https://www.animalgenetics.us/Avian/DNA_Sexing/DNA-Sexing-Index.asp

Animal Genetics, Inc. has instructions on their WebSite
for Proper Collection of Samples.
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FOR True Feather Samples to Send for DNA-Sex Testing.
Animal Genetics Page for Avian DNA Sexing (Feather)
https://www.animalgenetics.us/Avian/DNA_Sexing/DNA-Sexing-Feather.asp

Feathers must be Plucked.. FRESH and Allowed to DRY Completely.
Do Not Picked Up Feathers laying on the Ground.
No Loose Moulted Feathers.
The Test is Run on the Pink Skin Flesh that is inside the Quill.

SWAN Feathers DNA-Sex Testing 
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Feathers MUST be Plucked-Pulled from the Live Bird.

DNA Mute Swan Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Cygnets must be Old Enough to have Real-True Feathers.
Fuzzy Down is NOT Acceptable. Feathers will start coming in
when they are around Two – Three Months Old – 60-90 Days.

DNA Mute Swan Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing
DNA Mute Swan Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Pin Feathers are New Growth Feathers.. They are Rich in DNA.
5-6 Pin Feathers are an Acceptable Sample. ( I have not Collected these. )

Swan Cygnet 90 Days Old
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

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These are Photo Images to help you see what needs to be done…

Pull 6-10 Contour Feathers from the Chest area…
A Slight Tug will be needed.. While Lifting Upward.

It Does Not Hurt the Swan to Pull these Feathers…
They will FUSS just being held..

Fresh Plucked Feathers
Swans DNA-Sex Testing
Mute Swan Contour Feathers
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

The Breast Feathers are Contour Feathers..
NO Very Big.. About 3-4 Inches. They are Curved.

Get Control of the Cygnet/Swan. They may Fuss just being Held.
Gather a Small Clump of Breast Feathers – Pinch them..
Pull UPWARD Until they Come Out. No Need to Jerk them.
It is NOT Painful for the Cygnet/Swan.

You NEED 6-10 Contour Feathers with the Quill attached to the Feathers..
a Few Extra is OK to Submit..

Place Fresh Pulled Feather Sample in a ZipLoc Bag
     Allow the Bag to Remain Open to Assure Feathers will DRY. 
     Close the Bag just before Mailing.
Label each Swan and Sample so you know which Swan the Results will Correspond to.

Feather DNA Sample for Swans
Swans DNA-Sex Testing
Polish Mute Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

You will Receive a DNA-Sex Test Result Certificate for each Cygnet/Swan.
This Certificate should stay with the Swan through its Life.
This is much like their “Birth Certificate” – “Hatch Certificate.”

*************************************************

Since the SAFE Time to Pinion Cygnets is their First 10-14-21 Days..
It is not always possible to be sure what Sex the Cygnets are
when deciding which Wing to Pinion..

Pinioned Swan Cygnet
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

It is BETTER to Pinion A Wing by 10-14-21 Days then Not to Pinion.
Grounded Cygnets and Swan are Safer as Private Property Pets.

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There are Instructions to Clip a Tiny Piece of Toe Claw for DNA-Sex Testing.
https://www.animalgenetics.us/Avian/DNA_Sexing/DNA-Sexing-Blood.asp


Swan Collecting DNA Blood Sample

I am not familiar with this Method..   Yes, it will Bleed..  Potential for Infection.
You would be Cutting into the Tip of the Claw Until it Starts to Bleed..

Swan Missing Toe Claw
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

 ( Above ) We had One 10 Month Old Female Cygnet that was Missing a Toe Claw.
I Wondered if this was how she was Tested.. ??

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BIRD SEXING FROM EGG SHELLs
Animal Genetics offers DNA Sexing for Birds from the Vascular Material
found on the Collagen Membrane of an Egg.

There are Instructions for sending
–    Egg Shells for DNA-Sex Testing…
https://www.animalgenetics.us/Avian/DNA_Sexing/DNA-Sexing-Index.asp

Mute Swan Egg Shells
Swans DNA-Sex Testing
Mute Swan Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing


I am not familiar with Testing DNA using the Shell..
The “Dam” will generally Ingest the Shell if a Cygnet Hatches. 
Which Cygnet belongs to the Egg Shell Membrane  ???

Mute Swan Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing
Mute Swan Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

This might be Practical when Eggs are Hatched in an Incubator.
Making Sure which Cygnet belongs to which Shell would be Tricky.
Check HOW to Submitted this type of Sample Properly.

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**************************************

IF YOU USE ANY TYPE OF ID BAND On Cygnet Legs.
Take Care to Adjust ANY Leg Band so it will NOT
Slide UP the Leg over the Ankle Joint.. The Joint Next to the Feathers…

Cable Tie ID Swan Cygnet
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Adjust to Minimize Catching on things.

BE SURE TO CHANGE ANY TYPE OF LEG BAND
As the Cygnet/Swan Grows. THEY GROW QUICKLY.

We have used Colored Cable Ties on Cygnets we are Hand Raising.
NOT on Tiny Cygnets on the Pond with their Parents.
Tiny Cygnets are a Challenge to Catch.. Risking TIGHT Bands. 

Colored Bands to ID Cygnets 
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Most Hardware Stores have Multi-Colored – Multi Size Cable Ties.

ID Banding for Swans
https://swanlovers.net/category/id-banding-for-swans/

I have NO Suggestions on how to Label or ID Tiny Cygnets
that are on Ponds with their Parents.

ANY Thing Placed on their Legs will NEED to be changed as they GROW..
We WAIT for them to be 12-14 Weeks Old.. and Band the Summer Survivors.

***************************************************

One Lake Community Banded their Tiny Cygnets when they Pinioned them.
Then were Unable to Catch and Change the Tightening Leg Bands.
Two of the Fast Growing Cygnets had Severely Constricted Legs.
Once the Bands were Removed, it Took Months for their Legs to Function.

**************************************************

I was Hoping to find a Safe Permanent way to ID Swans.

There are Metal Registration Bands for Trumpeter Swans.
These may not be used on other Swan Species.

There are Colored Bands for Domestic Poultry.
NONE are Large enough for Mature Male Mutes.

I made several Calls to Companies that make Bands and ID Tags
for Poultry and Farm Animals.  Suggestion – This Clip MIGHT work.

June 2016 – After Evaluating these as Possible Permanent IDs
for Swans/Cygnets, a Veterinarian felt these might be OK to try on 
Cygnets that are FOUR Months Old. Clipping ON Wing Skin.

(June 2016)  More Information will Follow:  SCRAP this Idea.
As of August 2018 We have NOT used the Ear Tags Below.
The Concern is that NO ONE will LOOK for the Tags Covered
with Fluffy Wing Feathers.  A Good IDEA -But Not Practical.
NONE of the Suggestions Below.. are Really Going to Work.. (Sigh)

NB&T Metal Ear Tag 681


National Band & Tag Company
International Identification INC
https://nationalband.com/wingbands/

721 York St, PO Box 72430
Newport, KY 41072-0430
Phone: 1(859) 261-2035
Fax: 800-261-TAGS (8247)
E-Mail: tags@nationalband.com

Spoke with a Sales Person Natasha April 2016
She felt Metal Livestock “Tags” would work well put on Tiny Cygnets
Weighing One Pound that will Grow into Swans 25-30 Pounds.
These would be clipped into the Wing Skin.
TAKE CARE NOT TO Clip anything but SKIN.
https://nationalband.com/metal-ear-tags/

Metal Livestock Identification Ear Tag
Cattle Ear Tags Self-Piercing – Self Locking
Tamper-Resistant Light Weight Aluminum
Will Last for 20+ Years. Style 681
Packs of 100 Number or Letters as you Choose.
One Color add $10.00

There is an Applicator Squeeze Tool that Seals these Tags.
The Photo Images is on the same Page.. $25.00
One Investment should take care of 10-12 Years of Cygnets.
https://nationalband.com/products/tab-end-681-2/

https://nationalband.com/metal-ear-tags/

2018 – For Now,  we will keep Seeking for another Idea.

*******************

I have Chatted with various Veterinarians about the Implanted
  ID Chips used with Cats and Dogs..
I did read about a Public Park being able to Recover a Stolen Swan
because the Swan had an ID Chip.

Something to Think About..
Draw Back:  You would need a Scanner to Read the Chip..

*******************

In the END WE Continue to Use Colored Cable Ties.

If you have several Cygnets from One Brood that you are SURE
you can Monitor the Leg Bands..  DO NOT Allow to GET TIGHT.
Constriction Damage to their Legs CAN Cause a Lifetime of Limping.

Cable Tie ID Swan Cygnet
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

AND CHANGE as they Grow…….
Have at least 4 Colors of SMALL Cable Ties…
OR four Colors of Light Weight Cotton Cord (Crochet Floss)…

Colored Bands to ID Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing


You can ID a Total of 8 Cygnets.
One of Four Colors on Left Legs
One of Four Colors on Right Legs

IF you need to ID more then 8 Cygnets..
Use Combinations of 2 Colors…  Place 2 Cables  Example ( Red + Green )
Keep Careful Records..

CYGNETS GROW QUICKLY… Change Cable Ties OFTEN..
NEVER Let the Cable Ties get Tight on their Legs..

Cable Tie ID Swan Cygnet
Swans DNA-Sex Testing
Cable Tie ID Swan Cygnet
Swans DNA-Sex Testing
Cable Tie ID Swan Cygnet
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Before you Cut the Cable TieSlide a Folded Piece of Paper
under the Cable Tie then Put the Scissors between the Cable Tie & Paper.
This way you will Not put any Pressure on the Skin
when you Snip the Cable Tie Off.

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ANIMAL GENETICs 
https://www.animalgenetics.us/Avian/DNA_Sexing/DNA-Sexing-Index.asp
ANIMAL GENETICs Main Office in the U.S.A.
Fax: 1-850-386-1146 . . . . . . contact@animalgenetics.us
Email: https://www.animalgenetics.us/about-us.php#contactform

*************************************************

MAIL SAMPLES TO THIS ADDRESS:

Mail DNA Sample for Swans
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

ANIMAL GENETICs AVIAN Biotech International
3382 Capital Circle NE
Tallahassee, FL 32308
*************************************************
ANIMAL GENETICs  AVIAN Biotech Office in England
Animal Genetics (Europe)
1 Mount Charles Rd,   St. Austell Cornwall, PL25 3LB   ENGLAND

Telephone: 44 (0)1726247788
Email: Use Contact Form . . . . . contact@animalgenetics.us
https://www.animalgenetics.us/about-us.php#contactform

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If you are Lucky to know Someone who can teach you to Vent Check
the Swans/Cygnets, try to Learn..
Then when you are Unsure Send a Sample for DNA-Sex Testing.

Male Mute Swan Cygnet
Swans DNA-Sex Testing


Not Finding “Male Parts” does not mean you have a Female.
It just means you did not find a Penis.
*************************************

It is Surprising how Difficult it is to be sure if a Mute Swan is a Male or Female.
 Look at this Breeding Pair – So Similar.

Breeding Polish Swans
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Cygnets of all Swan Species are the same Challenge.

Black Australian Swan Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

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Size of Swan – Size of Cygnet – Not Reliable

In the Summer of 2015, we Rescued Three Cygnets from the Same Brood.
The Larger Smoky-Grey Cygnet was the Female.
The Two Smaller Creamy White Nest Mates were BOTH Males.

If we had just Guessed… we would be WRONG.

Mute Swan Cygnets
Swans DNA-Sex Testing
Male Mute Swan  Nest Mates
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

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Several Years Ago.. A Swan Breeder with 20+ Years of Experience,
Claimed two Mature Swans that were always together were a Male/Female Pair.
A Person in Texas Purchased this “Pair” and Arranged for them to be
Flown from Pennsylvania. Off to Texas they Flew by Air Mail Cargo.
By Good Fortune the two Swans Arrived Safe and Sound.
But, it only took the New Owner a Short Time to Realize Both were MALE.
He was NOT Happy…

************************************

We met an Older Gentleman with a Lone Two Year Old Swan on his Pond.  
We hoped to help him find a Mate. He was SURE “Swanie” was a Female.

Two Year Old Mute Swan
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

“Swanie” had been Vent Checked Twice… by a Person Familiar with Swans.

Male Mute Swan
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

I Remember Thinking, this Swan has a Very Large Knob and is “Busking.”
I thought… Hummmm.. Acts like a Male.  (Not a Good Way to Guess Sex.) 

I was told, “No.”
A Person who “knows” how to Vent Check, had done so Twice
and Determined “Swanie” was a Female.
I know “Looks” vary Greatly..
Lone Females may Behave more Aggressive as a Survival Tactic.

This Gentleman Purchased a Year Old Male Juvenile.

Swan Companions
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

Four Years Passed….
The Swans Spent more Time with One Fussing and Chasing the Other
then being a Peaceful Bonded Pair.
No Mating was Observed – Nesting… Yes – Sorta.  NO Eggs.

Same Sex Male Swans
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

The Purchased Juvenile Male had Grown into a Large Dominant Male Swan. 
He would Build the Nest and “Sit” on it..

“Swanie” was NOT Allowed Near the Nest.        ???
The Owner was Bewildered and Frustrated at the Pair’s Behavior.

I Suggested several Times this MIGHT be Two Males.
But, the Owner was SURE he was RIGHT ! !

Male Mute Swan
Swans DNA-Sex Testing

One Winter Day, we had a Chance to Pull several Breast Feathers from “Swanie.”
When the DNA-Results came back…..
“Swanie” was CONFIRMED a Male.   The Owner was Shocked !!!

Same Sex Male Swans
Swans DNA-Sex Testing